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Computer history essay
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Essays of Michel de Montaigne
An essay is, generally, a piece of writing that gives the author’s own argument — but the definition is vague, overlapping with those of a paper , an article , a pamphlet , and a short story . Essays have traditionally been sub-classified as formal and informal. Formal essays are characterized by “serious purpose, dignity, logical organization, length,” whereas the informal essay is characterized by “the personal element (self-revelation, individual tastes and experiences, confidential manner), humor, graceful style, rambling structure, unconventionality or novelty of theme,” etc. 
Essays are commonly used as literary criticism , political manifestos , learned arguments , observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author. Almost all modern essays are written in prose , but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g., Alexander Pope ‘s An Essay on Criticism and An Essay on Man ). While brevity usually defines an essay, voluminous works like John Locke ‘s An Essay Concerning Human Understanding and Thomas Malthus ‘s An Essay on the Principle of Population are counterexamples.
In some countries (e.g., the United States and Canada), essays have become a major part of formal education . Secondary students are taught structured essay formats to improve their writing skills; admission essays are often used by universities in selecting applicants, and in the humanities and social sciences essays are often used as a way of assessing the performance of students during final exams.
The concept of an “essay” has been extended to other media beyond writing. A film essay is a movie that often incorporates documentary filmmaking styles and focuses more on the evolution of a theme or idea. A photographic essay covers a topic with a linked series of photographs that may have accompanying text or captions .
- 1 Definitions
- 2 History
- 2.1 Europe
- 2.2 Japan
- 3 Forms and styles
- 3.1 Cause and effect
- 3.2 Classification and division
- 3.3 Compare and contrast
- 3.4 Descriptive
- 3.5 Dialectic
- 3.6 Exemplification
- 3.7 Familiar
- 3.8 History (thesis)
- 3.9 Narrative
- 3.10 Argumentative
- 3.11 Economic
- 3.12 Reflective
- 3.13 Other logical structures
- 4 Academic
- 5 Magazine or newspaper
- 6 Employment
- 7 Non-literary types
- 7.1 Film
- 7.2 Music
- 7.3 Photography
- 7.4 Visual arts
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
John Locke ‘s 1690 An Essay Concerning Human Understanding .
An essay has been defined in a variety of ways. One definition is a “prose composition with a focused subject of discussion” or a “long, systematic discourse”. 
It is difficult to define the genre into which essays fall. Aldous Huxley , a leading essayist, gives guidance on the subject.  He notes that “the essay is a literary device for saying almost everything about almost anything”, and adds that “by tradition, almost by definition, the essay is a short piece”. Furthermore, Huxley argues that “essays belong to a literary species whose extreme variability can be studied most effectively within a three-poled frame of reference”.
These three poles (or worlds in which the essay may exist) are:
- The personal and the autobiographical: The essayists that feel most comfortable in this pole “write fragments of reflective autobiography and look at the world through the keyhole of anecdote and description”.
- The objective, the factual, and the concrete particular: The essayists that write from this pole “do not speak directly of themselves, but turn their attention outward to some literary or scientific or political theme. Their art consists of setting forth, passing judgment upon, and drawing general conclusions from the relevant data”.
- The abstract-universal: In this pole “we find those essayists who do their work in the world of high abstractions”, who are never personal and who seldom mention the particular facts of experience.
Huxley adds that the most satisfying essays “…make the best not of one, not of two, but of all the three worlds in which it is possible for the essay to exist.”
The word essay derives from the French infinitive essayer, “to try” or “to attempt”. In English essay first meant “a trial” or “an attempt”, and this is still an alternative meaning. The Frenchman Michel de Montaigne (1533–1592) was the first author to describe his work as essays; he used the term to characterize these as “attempts” to put his thoughts into writing, and his essays grew out of his commonplacing .  Inspired in particular by the works of Plutarch , a translation of whose Œuvres Morales (Moral works) into French had just been published by Jacques Amyot , Montaigne began to compose his essays in 1572; the first edition, entitled Essais , was published in two volumes in 1580. For the rest of his life, he continued revising previously published essays and composing new ones. Francis Bacon ‘s essays , published in book form in 1597, 1612, and 1625, were the first works in English that described themselves as essays. Ben Jonson first used the word essayist in English in 1609, according to the Oxford English Dictionary .
The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. (January 2011) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message )
English essayists included Robert Burton (1577–1641) and Sir Thomas Browne (1605–1682). In France, Michel de Montaigne ‘s three volume Essais in the mid 1500s contain over 100 examples widely regarded as the predecessor of the modern essay. In Italy, Baldassare Castiglione wrote about courtly manners in his essay Il Cortigiano. In the 17th century, the Jesuit Baltasar Gracián wrote about the theme of wisdom.  During the Age of Enlightenment , essays were a favored tool of polemicists who aimed at convincing readers of their position; they also featured heavily in the rise of periodical literature , as seen in the works of Joseph Addison , Richard Steele and Samuel Johnson . In the 18th and 19th centuries, Edmund Burke and Samuel Taylor Coleridge wrote essays for the general public. The early 19th century, in particular, saw a proliferation of great essayists in English – William Hazlitt , Charles Lamb , Leigh Hunt and Thomas de Quincey all penned numerous essays on diverse subjects. In the 20th century, a number of essayists tried to explain the new movements in art and culture by using essays (e.g., T.S. Eliot ). Whereas some essayists used essays for strident political themes, Robert Louis Stevenson and Willa Cather wrote lighter essays. Virginia Woolf , Edmund Wilson , and Charles du Bos wrote literary criticism essays. 
As with the novel , essays existed in Japan several centuries before they developed in Europe with a genre of essays known as zuihitsu — loosely connected essays and fragmented ideas. Zuihitsu have existed since almost the beginnings of Japanese literature. Many of the most noted early works of Japanese literature are in this genre. Notable examples include The Pillow Book (c. 1000), by court lady Sei Shōnagon , and Tsurezuregusa (1330), by particularly renowned Japanese Buddhist monk Yoshida Kenkō . Kenkō described his short writings similarly to Montaigne, referring to them as “nonsensical thoughts” written in “idle hours”. Another noteworthy difference from Europe is that women have traditionally written in Japan, though the more formal, Chinese-influenced writings of male writers were more prized at the time.
Forms and styles
This section describes the different forms and styles of essay writing. These forms and styles are used by an array of authors, including university students and professional essayists .
Cause and effect
The defining features of a “cause and effect” essay are causal chains that connect from a cause to an effect, careful language, and chronological or emphatic order. A writer using this rhetorical method must consider the subject , determine the purpose , consider the audience , think critically about different causes or consequences, consider a thesis statement, arrange the parts, consider the language , and decide on a conclusion. 
Classification and division
Classification is the categorization of objects into a larger whole while division is the breaking of a larger whole into smaller parts. 
Compare and contrast
Compare and contrast essays are characterized by a basis for comparison, points of comparison, and analogies. It is grouped by the object (chunking) or by point (sequential). The comparison highlights the similarities between two or more similar objects while contrasting highlights the differences between two or more objects. When writing a compare/contrast essay, writers need to determine their purpose, consider their audience, consider the basis and points of comparison, consider their thesis statement, arrange and develop the comparison, and reach a conclusion. Compare and contrast is arranged emphatically. 
Descriptive writing is characterized by sensory details, which appeal to the physical senses, and details that appeal to a reader’s emotional, physical, or intellectual sensibilities. Determining the purpose, considering the audience, creating a dominant impression, using descriptive language, and organizing the description are the rhetorical choices to consider when using a description. A description is usually arranged spatially but can also be chronological or emphatic. The focus of a description is the scene. Description uses tools such as denotative language, connotative language, figurative language , metaphor , and simile to arrive at a dominant impression.  One university essay guide states that “descriptive writing says what happened or what another author has discussed; it provides an account of the topic”. 
Lyric essays are an important form of descriptive essays.
In the dialectic form of the essay, which is commonly used in philosophy , the writer makes a thesis and argument, then objects to their own argument (with a counterargument), but then counters the counterargument with a final and novel argument. This form benefits from presenting a broader perspective while countering a possible flaw that some may present. This type is sometimes called an ethics paper. 
An exemplification essay is characterized by a generalization and relevant, representative, and believable examples including anecdotes . Writers need to consider their subject, determine their purpose, consider their audience, decide on specific examples, and arrange all the parts together when writing an exemplification essay. 
Malthus’ Essay on the Principle of Population
An essayist writes a familiar essay if speaking to a single reader, writing about both themselves, and about particular subjects. Anne Fadiman notes that “the genre’s heyday was the early nineteenth century,” and that its greatest exponent was Charles Lamb .  She also suggests that while critical essays have more brain than the heart, and personal essays have more heart than brain, familiar essays have equal measures of both. 
A history essay sometimes referred to as a thesis essay describes an argument or claim about one or more historical events and supports that claim with evidence, arguments, and references. The text makes it clear to the reader why the argument or claim is as such. 
A narrative uses tools such as flashbacks , flash-forwards , and transitions that often build to a climax. The focus of a narrative is the plot . When creating a narrative, authors must determine their purpose, consider their audience, establish their point of view, use dialogue, and organize the narrative. A narrative is usually arranged chronologically. 
An argumentative essay is a critical piece of writing, aimed at presenting objective analysis of the subject matter, narrowed down to a single topic. The main idea of all the criticism is to provide an opinion either of positive or negative implication. As such, a critical essay requires research and analysis, strong internal logic and sharp structure. Its structure normally builds around introduction with a topic’s relevance and a thesis statement , body paragraphs with arguments linking back to the main thesis, and conclusion. In addition, an argumentative essay may include a refutation section where conflicting ideas are acknowledged, described, and criticized. Each argument of argumentative essay should be supported with sufficient evidence, relevant to the point.
An economic essay can start with a thesis, or it can start with a theme. It can take a narrative course and a descriptive course. It can even become an argumentative essay if the author feels the need. After the introduction, the author has to do his/her best to expose the economic matter at hand, to analyze it, evaluate it, and draw a conclusion. If the essay takes more of a narrative form then the author has to expose each aspect of the economic puzzle in a way that makes it clear and understandable for the reader
A reflective essay is an analytical piece of writing in which the writer describes a real or imaginary scene, event, interaction, passing thought, memory, or form — adding a personal reflection on the meaning of the topic in the author’s life. Thus, the focus is not merely descriptive. The writer doesn’t just describe the situation, but revisits the scene with more detail and emotion to examine what went well, or reveal a need for additional learning — and may relate what transpired to the rest of the author’s life.
Other logical structures
The logical progression and organizational structure of an essay can take many forms. Understanding how the movement of thought is managed through an essay has a profound impact on its overall cogency and ability to impress. A number of alternative logical structures for essays have been visualized as diagrams, making them easy to implement or adapt in the construction of an argument. 
University students , like these students doing research at a university library, are often assigned essays as a way to get them to analyze what they have read.
In countries like the United States and the United Kingdom , essays have become a major part of a formal education in the form of free response questions. Secondary students in these countries are taught structured essay formats to improve their writing skills, and essays are often used by universities in these countries in selecting applicants (see admissions essay ). In both secondary and tertiary education, essays are used to judge the mastery and comprehension of the material. Students are asked to explain, comment on, or assess a topic of study in the form of an essay. In some courses, university students must complete one or more essays over several weeks or months. In addition, in fields such as the humanities and social sciences,[ citation needed ] mid-term and end of term examinations often require students to write a short essay in two or three hours.
In these countries, so-called academic essays also called papers, are usually more formal than literary ones.[ citation needed ] They may still allow the presentation of the writer’s own views, but this is done in a logical and factual manner, with the use of the first person often discouraged. Longer academic essays (often with a word limit of between 2,000 and 5,000 words)[ citation needed ] are often more discursive. They sometimes begin with a short summary analysis of what has previously been written on a topic, which is often called a literature review .[ citation needed ]
Longer essays may also contain an introductory page that defines words and phrases of the essay’s topic. Most academic institutions require that all substantial facts, quotations, and other supporting material in an essay be referenced in a bibliography or works cited page at the end of the text. This scholarly convention helps others (whether teachers or fellow scholars) to understand the basis of facts and quotations the author uses to support the essay’s argument and helps readers evaluate to what extent the argument is supported by evidence, and to evaluate the quality of that evidence. The academic essay tests the student’s ability to present their thoughts in an organized way and is designed to test their intellectual capabilities.
One of the challenges facing universities is that in some cases, students may submit essays purchased from an essay mill (or “paper mill”) as their own work. An “essay mill” is a ghostwriting service that sells pre-written essays to university and college students. Since plagiarism is a form of academic dishonesty or academic fraud , universities and colleges may investigate papers they suspect are from an essay mill by using plagiarism detection software, which compares essays against a database of known mill essays and by orally testing students on the contents of their papers. 
Magazine or newspaper
Essays often appear in magazines, especially magazines with an intellectual bent, such as The Atlantic and Harpers . Magazine and newspaper essays use many of the essay types described in the section on forms and styles (e.g., descriptive essays, narrative essays, etc.). Some newspapers also print essays in the op-ed section.
An 1895 cover of Harpers , a US magazine that prints a number of essays per issue.
Employment essays detailing experience in a certain occupational field are required when applying for some jobs, especially government jobs in the United States. Essays known as Knowledge Skills and Executive Core Qualifications are required when applying to certain US federal government positions.
A KSA, or “Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities,” is a series of narrative statements that are required when applying to Federal government job openings in the United States. KSAs are used along with resumes to determine who the best applicants are when several candidates qualify for a job. The knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary for the successful performance of a position are contained on each job vacancy announcement. KSAs are brief and focused essays about one’s career and educational background that presumably qualify one to perform the duties of the position being applied for.
An Executive Core Qualification, or ECQ, is a narrative statement that is required when applying to Senior Executive Service positions within the US Federal government. Like the KSAs, ECQs are used along with resumes to determine who the best applicants are when several candidates qualify for a job. The Office of Personnel Management has established five executive core qualifications that all applicants seeking to enter the Senior Executive Service must demonstrate.
A film essay (or “cinematic essay”) consists of the evolution of a theme or an idea rather than a plot per se, or the film literally being a cinematic accompaniment to a narrator reading an essay.[ citation needed ] From another perspective, an essay film could be defined as a documentary film visual basis combined with a form of commentary that contains elements of self-portrait (rather than autobiography), where the signature (rather than the life story) of the filmmaker is apparent. The cinematic essay often blends documentary , fiction , and experimental film making using tones and editing styles. 
The genre is not well-defined but might include propaganda works of early Soviet parliamentarians like Dziga Vertov , present-day filmmakers including Chris Marker ,  Michael Moore ( Roger & Me (1989), Bowling for Columbine (2002) and Fahrenheit 9/11 (2004)), Errol Morris ( The Thin Blue Line (1988)), Morgan Spurlock ( Supersize Me: A Film of Epic Portions ) and Agnès Varda . Jean-Luc Godard describes his recent work as “film-essays”.  Two filmmakers whose work was the antecedent to the cinematic essay include Georges Méliès and Bertolt Brecht . Méliès made a short film ( The Coronation of Edward VII (1902)) about the 1902 coronation of King Edward VII , which mixes actual footage with shots of a recreation of the event. Brecht was a playwright who experimented with film and incorporated film projections into some of his plays.  Orson Welles made an essay film in his own pioneering style, released in 1974, called F for Fake , which dealt specifically with art forger Elmyr de Hory and with the themes of deception, “fakery,” and authenticity in general. These are often published online on video hosting services .  
David Winks Gray’s article “The essay film in action” states that the “essay film became an identifiable form of filmmaking in the 1950s and ’60s”. He states that since that time, essay films have tended to be “on the margins” of the filmmaking the world. Essay films have a “peculiar searching, questioning tone … between documentary and fiction” but without “fitting comfortably” into either genre. Gray notes that just like written essays, essay films “tend to marry the personal voice of a guiding narrator (often the director) with a wide swath of other voices”.  The University of Wisconsin Cinematheque website echoes some of Gray’s comments; it calls a film essay an “intimate and allusive” genre that “catches filmmakers in a pensive mood, ruminating on the margins between fiction and documentary” in a manner that is “refreshingly inventive, playful, and idiosyncratic”. 
In the realm of music , composer Samuel Barber wrote a set of “Essays for Orchestra,” relying on the form and content of the music to guide the listener’s ear, rather than any extra-musical plot or story .
“After School Play Interrupted by the Catch and Release of a Stingray” is a simple time-sequence photo essay .
A photographic essay strives to cover a topic with a linked series of photographs . Photo essays range from purely photographic works to photographs with captions or small notes to full-text essays with a few or many accompanying photographs. Photo essays can be sequential in nature, intended to be viewed in a particular order — or they may consist of non-ordered photographs viewed all at once or in an order that the viewer chooses. All photo essays are collections of photographs, but not all collections of photographs are photo essays. Photo essays often address a certain issue or attempt to capture the character of places and events.
In the visual arts , an essay is a preliminary drawing or sketch that forms a basis for a final painting or sculpture, made as a test of the work’s composition (this meaning of the term, like several of those following, comes from the word essayJA’s meaning of “attempt” or “trial”).
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- ^ Holman, William (2003). A Handbook to Literature (9 ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall. p. 193.
- ^ Gale – Free Resources – Glossary – DE Archived 2010-04-25 at the Wayback Machine .. Gale.cengage.com. Retrieved March 23, 2011.
- ^ Aldous Huxley, Collected Essays, “Preface”.
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- ^ Chapter 7: Cause and Effect in Glenn, Cheryl. Making Sense: A Real-World Rhetorical Reader. Ed. Denise B. Wydra, et al. Second ed. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2005.
- ^ Chapter 5: Classification and Division in Glenn, Cheryl. Making Sense: A Real-World Rhetorical Reader. Ed. Denise B. Wydra, et al. Second ed. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2005.
- ^ Chapter 6: Comparison and Contrast in Glenn, Cheryl. Making Sense: A Real-World Rhetorical Reader. Ed. Denise B. Wydra, et al. Second ed. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2005.
- ^ Chapter 2: Description in Glenn, Cheryl. Making Sense: A Real-World Rhetorical Reader. Ed. Denise B. Wydra, et al. Second ed. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2005.
- ^ Section 2.1 of the Simon Fraser University CNS Essay Handbook. Available online at: sfu.ca
- ^ “How to Write an Ethics Paper (with Pictures) – wikiHow” . Archived from the original on 2016-08-28. Retrieved 2016-07-01.
- ^ Chapter 4: Exemplification in Glenn, Cheryl. Making Sense: A Real-World Rhetorical Reader. Ed. Denise B. Wydra, et al. Second ed. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2005.
- ^ Fadiman, Anne . At Large and At Small: Familiar Essays. p. x.
- ^ Fadiman, At Large and At Small, xi.
- ^ History Essay Format & Thesis Statement, (February 2010)
- ^ Chapter 3 Narration in Glenn, Cheryl. Making Sense: A Real-World Rhetorical Reader. Ed. Denise B. Wydra, et al. Second ed. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2005.
- ^ “‘Mission Possible’ by Dr. Mario Petrucci” (PDF). Archived from the original on 2014-10-26. Retrieved 2014-10-25.
- ^ Khomami, Nadia (20 February 2017). “Plan to crack down on websites selling essays to students announced” . The Guardian. Archived from the original on 27 April 2017.
- ^ a b Cinematic Essay Film Genre Archived 2007-08-08 at the Wayback Machine .. chicagomediaworks.com. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
- ^ ( registration required ) Lim, Dennis (July 31, 2012). “Chris Marker, 91, Pioneer of the Essay Film” Archived 2012-08-03 at the Wayback Machine .. The New York Times . Retrieved July 31, 2012.
- ^ Discussion of film essays Archived 2007-08-08 at the Wayback Machine .. Chicago Media Works.
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- ^ Liptak, Andrew (2016-08-01). “This filmmaker deep-dives into what makes your favorite cartoons tick” . The Verge. Archived from the original on 2017-08-30. Retrieved 2017-07-05.
- ^ Gray, David Winks (January 30, 2009). “The essay film in action” . San Francisco Film Society . Archived from the original on March 15, 2009.
- ^ “Talking Pictures: The Art of the Essay Film” . Cinema.wisc.edu. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
- Theodor W. Adorno , “The Essay as Form” in: Theodor W. Adorno, The Adorno Reader, Blackwell Publishers 2000.
- Beaujour, Michel. Miroirs d’encre: Rhétorique de l’autoportrait’. Paris: Seuil, 1980. [Poetics of the Literary Self-Portrait. Trans. Yara Milos. New York: NYU Press, 1991].
- Bensmaïa, Reda. The Barthes Effect: The Essay as Reflective Text. Trans. Pat Fedkiew. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press, 1987.
- D’Agata, John (Editor), The Lost Origins of the Essay. St Paul: Graywolf Press, 2009.
- Giamatti, Louis. “The Cinematic Essay”, in Godard and the Others: Essays in Cinematic Form. London, Tantivy Press, 1975.
- Lopate, Phillip. “In Search of the Centaur: The Essay-Film”, in Beyond Document: Essays on Nonfiction Film. Edited by Charles Warren, Wesleyan University Press, 1998. pp. 243–270.
- Warburton, Nigel . The basics of essay writing. Routledge, 2006. ISBN 0-415-24000-X , ISBN 978-0-415-24000-0
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- The Dialectical Essay: A detailed writing guide – Sewanee University
- In Praise of the Undergraduate Essay by Dan Edelstein, Stanford University
- The Age of the Essay – Criticism of the modern essay, by Paul Graham
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