Improving Design of Library Management System using Design Patterns

Improving Design of Library Management System using Design Patterns



Library Domain Model

UML Class Diagram Example

Library Domain Model describes main classes and relationships which could be used during analysis phase
to better understand domain area for Integrated Library System (ILS), also known as a
Library Management System (LMS).

Each physical library item – book, tape cassette, CD, DVD, etc. could have its own item number.
To support it, the items may be barcoded. The purpose of barcoding is to provide a unique
and scannable identifier that links the barcoded physical item to the electronic record in the catalog.
Barcode must be physically attached to the item, and barcode number is entered into the corresponding
field in the electronic item record.

Barcodes on library items could be replaced by RFID tags.
The RFID tag can contain item’s identifier, title, material type, etc.
It is read by an RFID reader, without the need to open a book cover or CD/DVD case to scan it with barcode reader.

UML class diagram example of the Library Domain Model.

UML class diagram example of the Library Domain Model.





Library book attributes ISBN and subject
are inherited from Book
and shown with prepended caret ‘^’ symbol.

The title attribute explicitly
redefines name.
While type of the attributes is the same, name is different.
The lang attribute is explicitly redefined with different type.
Original type was free text String, while redefined attribute is more specific
(e.g. enumerated) Language class. We used explicit redefinition in this case
because attribute types String and Language are not related. Language is
enumeration type.

Library has some rules on what could be borrowed and what is for reference only.
Rules are also defined on how many books could be borrowed by patrons and how many could be reserved.

Library book attributes loanPeriod, dueDate, and isOverdue
are derived .
Length of time a library book may be borrowed (loan period) depends on library policy
and varies based on a kind of book and who is borrowing it.
For example, in a university library undergraduates could borrow book for 30 days,
graduate students for a quarter, and faculty staff for a year.
In a public library normal loan period for a book could be 3 weeks, while it could be lowered
to 2 weeks for new books.
Book return due date will be calculated based on the borrow date and loan period.
If due date is past the current date, isOverdue Boolean flag which is false by default
will be set to true.

Library Catalog provides access for the library patrons and staff to all sources of information
about library items, allows to search by a particular author, on a particular topic,
or in a particular format, that the library has.
It tells the user where materials meeting their specific needs can be found.


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Object Oriented Design – A Class Diagram Walkthrough

Making a Class Diagram with UML Notation – Explained Step by Step:

 Note: Your feedback , issues are warmly welcomed and I would be happy to assist you with any problem you might be having .Class diagrams are often used in object oriented analysis and design to show the various identified objects , their types (classes) , their data and operations and how the relate , or communicate with other objects or classes. Here are some of the standard UML conventions and a sample class diagram to get you started: 

Identify the classes in the problem domain:

 This is the first and most important step for creating the class diagram. What classes should you include and how to identify them given a problem statement or a scenario? The solution is simple and some time should be spent with the client / system engineers /your teacher in case you are making an academic project or any concerned authority having the required business knowledge.The first step however is creating a problem statement or establishing a set of requirements that the software should fulfill. E.g. you need to create a small library management system. What are some of the requirements for the system? Let’s try to make a problem statement or the scenario for your design. For the sake of simplicity considers the following simple problem Statement. “The library management system would be used by the librarian to keep track of books, library members and the borrowing activity. Not all books can be borrowed by the members. Some books may only be available to review in the library; all such books are termed as Reference books. There are 2 types of library members students and college faculty members. Faculty members can also check out research papers and magazines where as students can only checkout books. The system need to send alerts whenever a book that has to be returned within a specific date is not returned. An email is sent to the librarian and the borrower. The system maintains a catalogue having a description of each book that is available in the library” 

Ways to identify Classes:

 Do the Noun Analysis: Go through the problem statement again and again and try to figure out all the nouns that you come across. In our case some strong contenders for the classes of the library management system would be: Librarian,Book,Member,Catalogue,Student_Member,Faculty_Member,Reference_Book,Issueable_Book,Alert 

Perhaps there might be some nouns that I skipped but why??  I did that intentionally because of either of the two reasons. Either there is no data associated with them. They have no role to play in the system i.e. they don’t have any functions or actions associated with them. So by this we mean that “In order for a noun to be an object or a class it should have some attributes or member data and some actions or member functions.

 Resolving the relationships between classes:

Object oriented analysis and design is all about relationships between objects. Look for a certain type of relationships. These include generalization/inheritance/specialization, composition / containership, aggregation/ collections and associations. All of these are explained briefly below and discussed in terms of our scenario. There are some key questions associated with object oriented design over here.  How data is passed between the classes? What classes should have the objects of another class?What classes create the objects of other classes?What are some of the utility classes that the application requires? All these questions play an important role in the design. Think in terms of hierarchy for generalizations/inheritence:First of all check for hierarchy that may exist between the classes or the objects.This would model the inheritance or generaliztion or the superclass/subclass relationship.In natural language this might resolve to “type of” or “can be”. If you find such words in a problem statement there might be a case of generalization. E.g. In our scenario take the three classes BOOK , REFERENCE_BOOK and ISSUEABLE_BOOK . So a book can be a reference book or an issue able book or you can say that reference books and issue able books are the type of books. They all should ideally share many characteristics which are common to all the three classes.What I mean to say is, whether it is any book (reference or issue able) they all have ISBN number, author a language, a topic e.t.c so what is the difference. The difference is implied by the business rule that reference books cannot be issued but only reviewed. So for reference books we might add a Boolean data member called m_bReference and set it to true or something. Same is the case with Member, Student_Member and Faculty_Member. Inheritance is indicated in the class diagram with a filled black triangle pointing towards the base class and connecters connecting it to all the derived classes. In our scenario the inheritance could be shown as the figure below:

 Think of the Part-Whole Relationships:

Ok so now you know what might be the possible hierarchies in your system and what might be the common data members and the common functions. What are the differences and how the qualify to be another class. Another important type of relationship in terms of Object Oriented Analysis and Design is the “Part of” or “Part Whole” relationship. In Natural language, you might come across “has a” words to quickly identify these kind of relationships. In the list of candidate classes observe which of the objects the part of other objects is. This can also be taken as collection.To give you some examples for common scenarios. A Windows form is a collection of many controls.An automobile is composed of many parts.A shopping cart has many itemsA university is comprised of many campuses Here you want to ask a simple question to resolve the type of relationship and to know whether it is an aggregation or a composition. “Is the whole destroyed when the part is destroyed” or “It doesn’t make a difference to the Whole if the part is destroyed”. Now going through this example list. A form would still exist if any of the control is destroyed; the form serves it purpose properly. This implies an aggregation .An automobile wont function properly if any of its parts are destroyed e.g. it cannot function if the tires, steering, battery is taken out so this implies composition. A university will still exist if a campus is destroyed. So it depends upon the scenario and the business rules.

Returning to our depicted scenario the only part whole relationship noticeable is perhaps the catalogue. A catalogue has list of books available in the system with a short description of each. The catalogue is not destroyed if a book is destroyed so I would use aggregation in the design. In UML aggregation is shown with an empty diamond where as composition is shown with a solid black diamond.

 The Uses relationship – Association:

 Many objects use the methods/functions of other classes for utility. The objects are somehow related might be statically or dynamically but there is not a hierarchy or a part whole relationship. Such relationships are called association and can be mostly identified with “makes use of” or “uses” in the problem statement. E.g. There is a class called “Pen” which exposes a method called “Draw ()”. There is also a “Shape” class having a method called“drawShape ( )” . In the implementation of “drawShape( )” it internally calls / invokes the “Draw ()” method exposed by Pen. In our scenario  A librarian uses the book and student information to issue a book.The catalogue needs a reference of the book to add or update itselfAnd probably some more: 

Here is the sample design which I created with Visio just for the sake of discussion and show how relationships can be expressed in UML in terms of object oriented design.The business rules that I assumed for this discussion were really simple just to make the understanding better.If it helped you in any way or you require some discussion in any area do supply your feedback by leaving comments for this post. Thanks.

Sample Class Diagram

       

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53 Comments

Filed under Software Design

Tagged as Aggregation , Class Diagram , Composition , Encapsulation , Identifying Classes , Inheritence , OOAD , Problem Statement Analysis , Software Design , UML

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53 responses to “Object Oriented Design – A Class Diagram Walkthrough

  1. Dreamer
    March 10, 2008 at 10:02 pm

    Hi, I would like to thank you for this enlighting article !!! It’s fantastic, thank you a lot, you really helped me out…

    Reply

  2. vaishali
    March 11, 2008 at 2:36 pm

    its really vry gud. thanx a lot sir it help me to solve many problems.

    Reply

  3. asadsiddiqi
    March 20, 2008 at 5:44 pm

    Thank you : )

    Reply

  4. sid
    March 26, 2008 at 11:03 pm

    Hello,

    Very useful article. Thanks for the post.

    Have a question about the class operation: Suppose I’ve two classes, User and Blog.

    Users posts a Blog. Here the operation ‘postBlog()’, should it belong to the User class OR to the Blog class?
    Is there a rule to decide?

    Thanks again for all the help.

    -Sid

    Reply

  5. asadsiddiqi
    March 27, 2008 at 3:04 am

    Good Question !! primarily there are a few bare essentials the so called rules for OO Design and many time it depends on your implementation or how you decide to implement it. I would define a method in blog class called “CreatePost(string postContent)” and a method in User called “PostToBlog(Blog b)” and call the PostToBlog() Method and pass in the Blog object which you want to Post.
    There is no right or wrong in your scenario , matter of clarity and choice !! Best of luck and feel free to discuss !! Thanks

    Reply

  6. bgreddy
    May 14, 2008 at 12:14 am

    the information is very useful. thank you

    Reply

  7. lakshmikanth
    July 17, 2008 at 2:50 pm

    very useful content for beginners

    Reply

  8. nodeen
    July 23, 2008 at 7:27 am

    hi there..

    Very good article indeed. thanks a bunch :).
    i got a bit confuse between class diagram and ERD. can u tell me what the difference between those things?is it possible if some object mentioned in a class diagram not to be part in ERD?or all object in a class diagram is subjected to be a part of ERD?
    thanks.

    Reply

  9. kiran
    August 17, 2008 at 5:51 pm

    thanks sir,will you please send me the package diagram for the library management system ?
    my email-id
    [email protected]

    Reply

  10. prasanta mohapatro
    October 25, 2008 at 6:33 am

    hello muhhammad sir good morning , i am a mca student i want to know details about a class diagram for library management system .it is a part of our study and it is also helpful of our assignment so i request you to please send details about this diagram .thank you for anticipation
    your’s faithful
    prasanta

    Reply

  11. prasanta mohapatro
    October 25, 2008 at 6:35 am

    hello muhhammad sir good morning , i am a mca student i want to know details about a class diagram for library management system .it is a part of our study and it is also helpful of our assignment so i request you to please send details about this diagram .thank you for anticipation
    your’s faithful
    prasanta
    dt-25.11.08

    Reply

    • kidane
      December 23, 2010 at 8:36 pm

      please send class diagram related to the income taxation system

      Reply

  12. naveen
    November 4, 2008 at 4:23 pm

    Thank you sir…noun analysis really helepd me 🙂

    Reply

  13. Anand
    December 4, 2008 at 2:34 pm

    Thank you sir ………….Thanks a lot because of u i m able to identify classes from problem statement

    Reply

  14. gaurab maharjan
    December 12, 2008 at 8:50 am

    thanks for your great assist.i was looking for this daigram.it gave me good idea for my project.will you help me how it goes with the GRASP principles or patterns for OOD.i meant how can it be related with this daigram.
    regards
    gaurab maharjan

    Reply

  15. ubaid ullah
    December 25, 2008 at 8:13 pm

    HEllo nice article ,well i am a student od computer science and i am doing my semester project “online library management system” .
    i am doing the same thing as u had described above but in my project i had also added a “RESERING BOOK” option.
    and i am confused now that either it is a good approach or bad one. so would you please send me the whole documentation of the system you escribed above..

    Reply

  16. nripesh kumar nrip
    February 18, 2009 at 1:34 pm

    hello! i m a student of mca 2nd year..
    although the article is best..
    but i m looking for a class diagram for librery management system for my assignment work…

    Reply

  17. haseeb
    March 23, 2009 at 4:45 am

    sir, i want class, collabration, dfd,seqence digram and all documentaion of book shop management

    Reply

    • asadsiddiqi
      March 23, 2009 at 5:48 pm

      Sir, This article was aimed at helping you out on how to design a class diagram and ur application. I just put forward an example. I dont have any intentions what so ever to do your homework. Do some reading about UML and if u figure it out urself that would be good for you.

      Thank you and i hope U realize it sooner than later.

      Reply

  18. Benjamin
    May 22, 2009 at 3:22 pm

    Great tutorial, I am going into an exam soon and its almost a dead cert that i will have to do a class diagram. The book we have been given and lecture slides are very brief in that they show you the notation but neither give you a good walkthough of how to take a piece of text and methodically convert it to a class diagram

    thank you very much

    Reply

  19. azar
    December 15, 2009 at 7:03 am

    Hello!
    Dear brother, that was very useful to me to my assignment. And if you can try to design a component and collaboration diagram for the same system.

    Reply

  20. vathany
    January 3, 2010 at 6:36 am

    hi, Great tutorial thank you very much

    Reply

  21. krunnd
    March 18, 2010 at 5:07 am

    vaishali :
    its really vry gud. thanx a lot sir it help me to solve many problems.

    hi how r u ?
    u r so smart

    Reply

  22. Amaka
    April 1, 2010 at 6:50 pm

    Good one really helped me in my course work

    Reply

  23. Bonface Gauti
    July 28, 2010 at 7:47 am

    One of the best lecture notes so far. Keep on doing the good work. May the good Lord, Jesus Christ keep on helping you in your day to day assignments.

    Am doing a postgraduate diploma in Computer Science at Chancellor College, under University of Malawi, Zomba, Malawi, Central Africa. Let’s get in touch, be my mentor

    Thanks

    Reply

  24. ABBOT
    August 13, 2010 at 3:01 pm

    “What is backup? Backup is the process of making copies of the files and your documents. Additional copies are made as a precaution, because who knows, tomorrow tomorrow, will it damage your Windows and does not work.se more at http://jumadijalil.blogspot.com/2010/08/how-importance-of-backup.html “

    Reply

  25. janet poifo bapege
    October 14, 2010 at 1:52 pm

    sir, i want class, activity, use case,seqence digram and all documentaion of book shop management

    Reply

  26. Mhuammad Shakir
    October 31, 2010 at 7:55 pm

    Thanks Sir
    Its very good and it will help to solve my many problem.

    Reply

  27. Muhammad Shakir
    October 31, 2010 at 8:00 pm

    Thanks Sir
    Its very good and it will help to solve my many problem.
    thanks

    Reply

  28. student
    February 10, 2011 at 12:02 pm

    hi, if you know muhammad , what are the objects ,classes ,methods and attributes for the lbrary system can you briefly explain them to me and thanks .

    Reply

  29. Kedar
    April 30, 2011 at 5:56 am

    Hello,

    Can you please suggest any good book which discusses lot of examples about OO design by considering design patterns, objects, properties and their behavior.

    Thanks.

    Reply

    • asadsiddiqi
      July 17, 2011 at 6:00 pm

      UML Distilled By Martin Fowler

      Reply

      • Kedar
        July 17, 2011 at 6:05 pm

        Thanks a lot Sir.

    • asadsiddiqi
      October 26, 2011 at 1:55 am

      UML Distilled. Martin Fowler is a good UML and OO design writer.

      Reply

  30. miraj
    June 9, 2011 at 4:36 pm

    awesome ! this helped me out greatly ! keep posting more ..

    Reply

  31. miraj
    June 9, 2011 at 5:02 pm

    can you explain the connection between book and alert which you have given in the above figure?

    Reply

  32. Roshen Senadheera
    July 17, 2011 at 3:59 pm

    i’m really appreciate this note…thankz a lot…:)

    Reply

  33. Roshen Senadheera
    July 17, 2011 at 3:59 pm

    this is the note i ever wanted :DD

    Reply

  34. Din
    July 26, 2011 at 5:27 pm

    Thank you very much for this article. Really Appreciate

    Reply

  35. Neha Mishra
    August 17, 2011 at 1:38 pm

    thanks a lot its a useful article thanks…………..

    Reply

    • fathi
      August 6, 2012 at 12:21 pm

      ya it is very useful for us

      Reply

  36. Shafa
    October 7, 2011 at 7:12 am

    vry useful thanks a lot,

    Reply

  37. Verifly fam’e’ly Guy (@JustPaul_E)
    April 4, 2012 at 12:19 am

    thanks mate, GOD bless you for this short but brain lifting and enlightening article, will really help with my coursework.. Cheers..

    Reply

  38. THELAW
    April 13, 2012 at 11:04 pm

    I have spent hours trying to find an article that was clear in its explination of classes and relationships.

    Well done!

    Reply

  39. Dev
    July 2, 2012 at 12:24 pm

    Depicted scenario suggests that relationship between catalogue and books is of type “Aggregation” ; but in UML diagram relationship shown as “composition “. Which one is right in current depicted scenario ?

    Quoted from article
    “Returning to our depicted scenario the only part whole relationship noticeable is perhaps the catalogue. A catalogue has list of books available in the system with a short description of each. The catalogue is not destroyed if a book is destroyed so I would use aggregation in the design. “

    Reply

    • asadsiddiqi
      July 2, 2012 at 12:38 pm

      Good point ! But will the catalogue destroy if all the books are destroyed ? That is the business rule that a designer should think abouot. May be you think it would not be destroyed but I think it would be destroyed.
      You have a valid point and you may use aggregation 🙂

      -Cheers

      Reply

      • Dev
        July 2, 2012 at 1:30 pm

        I think , It should be destroyed ; since it is library management system and library can’t be managed without existing of a catalogue. Pl , update the attached image with your article’s depicted scenario ; so that readers can match UML diagram with given explanation .
        Thanks for a nice article .

        regards
        Dev

  40. asadsiddiqi
    July 2, 2012 at 12:43 pm

    Sorry for the late reply !
    I am trying to create a scenario where “Issuing a book will create an alert in the system. The librarian will get an alert when the book is not returned by the due date”. It is just a made up scenario to explain the relationships. I dont know if the real system works like that 🙂

    Reply

    • coder
      April 18, 2013 at 6:22 pm

      Hi,

      Very good stuff, it would be really great if you extend this stuff to database design, in real world that would be very useful.

      Reply

  41. Gizem
    May 18, 2014 at 2:37 pm

    hi! 😉
    First, thanks for your sharing.
    can you send the source code of this program? thank you ..

    Reply

    • asadsiddiqi
      May 22, 2014 at 12:49 pm

      You are welcome.
      No I did not write this program. It was just meant to provide an overview on How to create Class diagrams and what are the different relationships between classes and objects in Object Oriented Programming

      Reply

  42. Gizem
    May 22, 2014 at 12:42 pm

    Can you help me???

    Reply

    • asadsiddiqi
      May 22, 2014 at 12:50 pm

      Yes Sure,
      My hourly rate for freelance Software Development tasks is around $60 / hour. If you would like to have an estimate on getting this code, I can write it for you 🙂

      Thank you

      Reply

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    Online Library Mangement System

    Software Requirements Specification ...

    Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System ...

    Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page iiiRevisi...

    Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 11. Introduc...

    Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 22.2 Product...

    Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 3External In...

    Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 43. Function...

    Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 5 ...

    Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 63.2 Use cas...

    Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 7 3.3 Use...

    Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 8Use Case Na...

    Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 9Level ...

    Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 10 Use C...

    Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 11 Use-Cas...

    Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 12 Use Ca...

    Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 13Use-Case Na...

    Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 14Use-Case Na...

    Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 15 Use C...

    Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 16 Use C...

    Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 174. Nonfun...

    Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 18All methods...

    Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 194.6 Legal A...

    Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 205.2 System ...

    Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 21 Copyr...

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    Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 265.3 Operati...

    Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 27Contract co...

    Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 286.3 Applica...

    Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 297. Design P...

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    Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 337.2 Collabo...

    Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 34Appendix A:...
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    Online Library Mangement System

    1. 1.
      Software Requirements Specification For Library Management System Prepared by Maryum Afzal Ammar Azeem Muhammad Bilal Maham Batool University of Education 17th December 2012Copyright © 2012 Maryum Afzal. Permission is granted to use, modify, and distribute this document.
    2. 2.

      Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page iiTable of ContentsTable of Contents ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. iiRevision History …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… iii1. Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………1 1.1 Purpose ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1 1.2 Document Conventions ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1 1.3 Intended Audience and Reading Suggestions ………………………………………………………………….. 1 1.4 Product Scope ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1 1.5 References ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 12. Overall Description ……………………………………………………………………………………………………1 2.1 Product Perspective ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1 2.2 Product Functions ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2External Interface Requirements …………………………………………………………………………………….3 2.3 User Interfaces …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 33. Functional/Behavioral requirement ……………………………………………………………………………4 3.1 Actor Goal List ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4 3.2 Use case diagram …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6 3.3 Use-Case Description …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 74. Nonfunctional Requirements ……………………………………………………………………………………17 4.1 Usability …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 17 4.2 Reliability …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 17 4.3 Performance………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 17 4.4 Supportability ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 17 4.5 Implementation ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 18 4.6 Legal ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 195. Elaboration Phase ……………………………………………………………………………………………………19 5.1 Domain Model …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 19 5.2 System Sequence Diagram ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 20 5.3 Operational Contracts …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 266. Logical Architecture ………………………………………………………………………………………………..27 6.1 Description of Architecture of System ………………………………………………………………………….. 27 6.2 User Interface ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 27 6.3 Application Layer ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 28 6.4 Data Link Layer …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 287. Design Phase ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………29 7.1 Sequence Diagram ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 29 7.2 Collaboration Diagram ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 33 7.3 Design Class Diagram ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 33Appendix A: Glossary …………………………………………………………………………………………………..34Appendix B: Analysis Models ………………………………………………………………………………………..34Appendix C: To Be Determined List ………………………………………………………………………………34 Copyright © 2012 by Maryum Afzal. Permission is granted to use, modify, and distribute this document.

    3. 3.

      Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page iiiRevision HistoryName Date Reason For Changes VersionAmmar Azeem 1st To meet current requirement and in order to FinalMaryum Afzal December create efficient systemMuhammad Bilal 2012Maham Batool Copyright © 2012 by Maryum Afzal. Permission is granted to use, modify, and distribute this document.

    4. 4.

      Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 11. Introduction1.1 PurposeThe old library management system was based on paper work and excel sheet. Currentrequirement of a global village doesn’t support traditional work thus we have developed databasebased LMS with web based interface.1.2 Document ConventionsStandard rules of documentation and agile manifesto has been followed in order to standardize thework. In order to create an efficient and effective library management system in the premises ofUniversity of Education.1.3 Intended Audience and Reading SuggestionsThese documents are intended for people relating to different walk of IT, such as developers,project managers, marketing staff, users, testers, and documentation writers and quality assurancestaff database developer.1.4 Product ScopeThe Library Management System will be a web based application design & develop for receipt andissuance of books in the library along with the borrower’s details and history. The system willgenerate the spine labels and manages the late fine and damages on lost books as well. Moreovera number of important reports can be generated through this System.1.5 Referenceshttp://www.scribd.com/doc/24051771/UML-DIAGRAM-OF-LIBRARY-MANAGEMENT-SYSTEMhttp://www.scribd.com/doc/44033260/UML-Diagrams-for-Library-Management-Systemhttp://www.scribd.com/doc/21960811/Library-Management-System2. Overall Description2.1 Product PerspectiveThe old library management system was based on paper work and excel sheet. Current requimentof a global village doesn’t support traditional work thus we have developed database based LMSwith web based interface. Copyright © 2012 by Maryum Afzal. Permission is granted to use, modify, and distribute this document.

    5. 5.

      Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 22.2 Product Functions  Members Listing and Searching  Items Management (Books, Magazines, Articles, News, Thesis, Projects, DVDs, etc.)  Circulation Management( Issue of Books, Return of Books and Re-Issue)  Importing Members from Existing Database  Labeling (Barcode Tag Generation)  Book Reservation Copyright © 2012 by Maryum Afzal. Permission is granted to use, modify, and distribute this document.

    6. 6.

      Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 3External Interface Requirements2.3 User Interfaces Copyright © 2012 by Maryum Afzal. Permission is granted to use, modify, and distribute this document.

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      Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 43. Functional/Behavioral requirement3.1 Actor Goal List Copyright © 2012 by Maryum Afzal. Permission is granted to use, modify, and distribute this document.

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      Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 5 ACTOR GOALStudent Book reservation Return book Search books online Change password Read and Download E-BooksLibrarian Add member Delete member Add new book information Delete old book records Send e-mail reminders Fine collection Update student information Issue book Search student and faculty records Update book status Issued books RecordsDatabase Administrator Online registration Issue online user ID and password View all records Search student and faculty records Maintenance Update Student Information Online Delete Book Update book status online Issued books Records Upload E-BooksFaculty Members Book reservation return book online book reservation search books online add student notes Copyright © 2012 by Maryum Afzal. Permission is granted to use, modify, and distribute this document.

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      Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 63.2 Use case diagram Copyright © 2012 by Maryum Afzal. Permission is granted to use, modify, and distribute this document.

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      Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 7 3.3 Use-Case Description Use Case Selection DescriptionUse Case Name Add Students RecordLevel Sub-Function levelPrimary Actor Student, Faculty MemberStakeholders and Interest Student: wants to register in the library. Faculty Member: wants to register in the library. Administrator: responsible for the management of online activities and modifications in the database. Librarian: responsible to keep the specific records for particular student and faculty member.Pre-Condition Student and Faculty members have submitted their registration forms.Post-Condition Record for a student/faculty member has been added.Main Success Scenario 1. Student/Faculty Member visits the website to access the online library services. 2. Student/Faculty member sign-up to get registered online. 3. He/she provides correct information and a secret password. 4. She/he got registered.Alternative Flows 1. Student/Faculty member visits the website to access the online library services. 2. He/she tries to sign-up. 3. She/he fails and receives an error. 4. She/he will visit the librarian to report a complaint. 5. Librarian will forward this complaint to the administrator.Special Requirements  The maximum response time for online registration is 1 minute.  The System can support Urdu English and French language.Technology and Data Variation Student or faculty member may not be able to navigate on site.Frequency of Occurrence Could be nearly continuousOpen Issues If student/faculty member is not registered online he will have to wait for one day to process his/her complaint to the administrator. Copyright © 2012 by Maryum Afzal. Permission is granted to use, modify, and distribute this document.

    11. 11.

      Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 8Use Case Name Edit Students RecordScope Online Library Management SystemLevel User GoalPrimary Actor AdminStakeholders and Admin: wants to change membership record of the specific student.Interests Student/faculty member: whose record will be manipulated.Preconditions The password entered is correct.Triggers Admin selects Edit Student Record option from the Student Membership Record menu.Success Guarantee The record of the student Membership is Changed in the Library Management Software.Main Success 1. Admin: Selects the menu to Change membership record of the Specific Student.Scenario 2. Admin: Enters the Name of the Categories and the correct data of that student 2-2c, 2-2d 3. Library Management System: Save the changes in the Membership record of the Students and updates the previous record.Alternative Flow 2-2a: if the Password is incorrect than a message is printed on the screen and admin is returned to the Student Membership record menu. 2-2b: if the name of the categories not among the existing categories, a message is printed on the screen and admin is returned to Student Membership record menu. 2-2c: The Registration must be in the form “year of joining of institution – institution name – department name – registration number (that must not be greater than 4 digits)”. 2-2d: The Date of the Birth and Joining date must be in the format of “MM/DD/YYYY” if Month is greater than 12 or Days is greater than 31, a message is printed on the screen and asks for reenter.Special Requirements The system can support Urdu English and French language.Technology Student or faculty member may not be able to navigate on site.Open Issues Administrator must logout to avoid unauthorized access.Use case Name Search Students RecordScope Library Management System Copyright © 2012 by Maryum Afzal. Permission is granted to use, modify, and distribute this document.

    12. 12.

      Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 9Level User GoalGoal in Context Present a form to the admin to allow him to search the record of the students.Primary Actor AdminStakeholders Admin: Wants to Search membership record of the Required StudentsPreconditions NoneTriggers Admin selects Search Student Record option from the Student Membership Record menu.Success Guarantee Library Management Software Presents the record of the required student in tabular form.Main Success 1. Admin: Selects the menu option to Search membership record of the RequiredScenario Students. 2. Library Management System: presents a form 3. Admin: Enters the name, Father’s Name, Registration Number 2-4a, 4. Library Management System: Presents the record of the required student.Alternative Flow 2-4a: The Registration must be in the form “year of joining of institution – institution name – department name – registration number (that must not be greater than 4 digits)”Technology and Data Barcode search scheme will be followed if the student card is available.VariationOpen Issues Student cannot search his/her own record Copyright © 2012 by Maryum Afzal. Permission is granted to use, modify, and distribute this document.

    13. 13.

      Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 10 Use Case Selection DescriptionUse Case Name View/Edit Book DetailLevel User-goal levelPrimary Actor Librarian, AdministratorStakeholders and Interest Administrator: responsible for the management of online activities and modifications in the database. Librarian: responsible to keep the specific records for particular books.Pre-Condition Books records are already found in the database.Post-Condition Record for a particular book has been searched or modified.Main Success Scenario 1. Librarian/ administrator tries to login. 2. Login successful. 3. Librarian or the administrator tries to search record for a particular book. . 4. Record is found. 5. He/she wants to edit the record. 6. The record has been edited.Alternative Flows 1. If login fails, the administrator should re-register that staff 2. If book search is unsuccessful, then that book cannot be viewed or edited. 3. If staff search is unsuccessful, then that staff member cannot be viewed or editedSpecial Requirements  The maximum response time is 1 minute.  The System can support Urdu English and French language.Technology and Data Variation Student or faculty member may not be able to navigate on site.Frequency of Occurrence Could be nearly continuousOpen Issues If student/faculty member is not registered online he will have to wait for one day to process his/her complaint to the administrator. Copyright © 2012 by Maryum Afzal. Permission is granted to use, modify, and distribute this document.

    14. 14.

      Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 11 Use-Case Selection DescriptionUse Case Name Add Books RecordScope Library Management SystemLevel User-Goal LevelGoal in Context Present a form to the administrator to allow him to add record of the Books.Primary Actor AdministratorStakeholders Administrator: Wants to add record of the different BooksPre-Conditions The password entered is correct.Post-Conditions The record of the Books is added to the Library Management Software and it assigns a number to each book.Main Success Scenario 1. Administrator selects the menu option to add record of the different Books. Administrator enters the name, Author’s Name and Edition or he/she can use barcode. 2-2a 2. The Record of the books, updating of the previous record and assign a number to each book has been done.Alternative Flows 2-2a: if the Password is incorrect than a message is printed on the screen and Administrator is returned to the Books record menu.Technology and Data Administrator can use books barcodes to enter the records of books.VariationOpen Issues If the site is down, records will be entered through system instead of web. Copyright © 2012 by Maryum Afzal. Permission is granted to use, modify, and distribute this document.

    15. 15.

      Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 12 Use Case Selection DescriptionUse Case Name Update Issued Books RecordScope Library Management SystemLevel User Goal LevelGoal in Context Present a menu from which one can access the various functions of the issued Book Record.Primary Actor AdministratorStakeholders Administrator: enter and maintain the issued Books Record.Pre-Conditions The books have been issued.Post-ConditionsMain Success Scenario: 1. Administrator selects the menu option to enter in the issued Books record. 2. LMS presents a Menu for maintaining issued Books Record. (2-2a, 2-2b) That contains the following Two options to choose from: a) Add issued Books Record b) Edit issued Books RecordAlternative Flows: 2-2a. To enter in the option Add issued books Record and Edit issued books Record, the system waits for the Password. 2-2b. If the required book is not available in the library, a message is printed on the screenTechnology Online web access is supported.Special Requirements  In case of high latency the response time may exceed up to 1 minute.  The System can support Urdu English and French language.Open Issues If the site is down, records will be entered through computer system instead of web. Use-Case Selection Description Copyright © 2012 by Maryum Afzal. Permission is granted to use, modify, and distribute this document.

    16. 16.

      Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 13Use-Case Name View Students RecordScope Library Management SystemLevel User GoalGoal in Context Present the record of all students in tabular form.Primary Actor AdminStakeholders Admin: Wants to view membership record of all Students that are member of the library.Pre-Conditions NonePost-Condition Admin selects View Student Record option from the Student Membership Record menu.Success Guarantee Library Management Software shows the table that contains the record of all students that are member of the library.Main Success Scenario 1. Administrator selects the menu option to view membership record of all Students. 2. LMS presents membership record of all Students that are member of the library in the tabular form. 2-2aAlternative Flows 2-2a. Records of the members could not be displayed, but an error.Special Requirements  The maximum response time is 1 minute.  The System can support Urdu English and French language.Technology and Data Librarian may not be able to navigate on site.VariationFrequency of Occurrence Could be nearly continuousOpen Issues If the site is down, records can be viewed through computer system instead of web. Use-Case Selection Description Copyright © 2012 by Maryum Afzal. Permission is granted to use, modify, and distribute this document.

    17. 17.

      Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 14Use-Case Name Returned Books RecordScope Library Management SystemLevel User GoalGoal in Context Present a menu from which one can access the various functions of the returned Book Record.Primary Actor AdminStakeholders and Admin: Wants to enter and maintain the returned Books Record.InterestsPre-Conditions NonePost-Conditions Admin selects returned Book Record option from the main menu and Library Management System waits for user inputMain Success Scenario 1. Administrator selects the menu option to enter in the returned Books record. 2. Library Management System: Presents a Menu for maintaining returned Books Record. That contains the following two options to choose from.2- 2a a. Add returned Books Record b. Edit returned Books Record 3. Library Management System waits for user input.Alternative Flows 2-2a. To enter in the option Add returned books Record and Edit returned books Record, the system waits for the Password.Special Requirements  The maximum response time is 1 minute.  The System can support Urdu English and French language.Technology and Data Librarian member may not be able to navigate on site.VariationOpen Issues If the site is down, records can be viewed through computer system instead of web. Copyright © 2012 by Maryum Afzal. Permission is granted to use, modify, and distribute this document.

    18. 18.

      Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 15 Use Case Selection DescriptionUse Case Name Reserve BookLevel User-goal levelPrimary Actor Student, Faculty MemberStakeholders and Interest Student: wants to reserve a book online. Faculty Member: wants to reserve book Administrator: responsible for the management of online activities and modifications in the database. Librarian: responsible to keep the specific book reserved for particular student.Pre-Condition Student and Faculty members are registeredPost-Condition Student/Faculty Member has reserved the bookMain Success Scenario 5. Student/Faculty Member visits the website to access the online library services. 6. Student enters login information and sign in. 7. Student search for specific book. 8. Student found the book. 9. Student clicked the reservation button. 10. System asks for student ID. 11. Student enters the system ID. 12. Book has been reserved on the basis of unique library ID number. 13. Student wills logout from the library management system.Alternative Flows 6. Student visits the website to access the online library services. 7. Student Enter login information and sign in. 8. Student searches for specific book. 9. Student could not find the required book.Special Requirements  The maximum response time for online book search is 2 minutes.  The System can support Urdu English and French language.Technology and Data Variation Student or faculty member may not be able to navigate on site.Frequency of Occurrence Could be nearly continuousOpen Issues Book will only be reserved for 24 hours. Student have to go to library within 24 hours to get the book, otherwise reservation will be cancelled. Copyright © 2012 by Maryum Afzal. Permission is granted to use, modify, and distribute this document.

    19. 19.

      Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 16 Use Case Selection DescriptionUse Case Name Return BookLevel User-goal levelPrimary Actor Student, Faculty MemberStakeholders and Interest Student: wants to return a book in library Faculty Member: wants to return the book. Administrator: responsible for the management of online activities and modifications in the database. Librarian: responsible to update the status of books.Pre-Condition Book(s) have been issued to the student/faculty memberPost-Condition Student/faculty member has reserved the bookMain Success Scenario 1. Student/Faculty member visits the library to return book(s). 2. Student/Faculty member gives his/her library card and the book(s) to the librarian. 3. Librarian checks if the book is returned on time. If yes, the book will be returned successfully. 4. Librarian will update book information 5. Administrator will update online book status.Alternative Flows 1. Student/Faculty member visits the library to return book(s). 2. Student/Faculty member gives his/her library card and the book(s) to the librarian. 3. Librarian checks if the book is not returned on time. 4. Librarian generates fine slip. 5. Student/Faculty member library card will be taken. 6. She/he submits the fine to get the library card back.Special Requirements  Printed fine slips must be generatedTechnology and Data Variation  Fine slip will be generated from the dot-matrix or ink-jet printers.  Fine will be paid according to the laws of the institute/organization.Frequency of Occurrence Could be nearly continuousOpen Issues If the student/faculty member will not pay the fine in one week duration, the fine will be doubled every month. Student has to pay it with semester/session fee. In case of faculty member fine will be deducted from pay. Copyright © 2012 by Maryum Afzal. Permission is granted to use, modify, and distribute this document.

    20. 20.

      Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 174. Nonfunctional Requirements4.1 Usability  In educational institute that can make their library management system IT based and reliable.  In general libraries of the city/country.  In Small offices with little modifications.4.2 Reliability  Its cost is under the budget and it is desirable to aim for a system with a minimum cost subject to the condition that it must satisfy the entire requirement.  Clearly identifying the information needed by the user, the source of the information and outputs expected from the system.  System testing is properly done to avoid bugs and unexpected errors.  Database is properly normalized.  Risk Analysis is also done and security measures are taken to avoid unauthorized access.  System Recovery will be fast because of proper backup systems.4.3 Performance  The response time in case of online search will be 1 minute (maximum).  Proper backups system will not allow the online system to be down.  Customized data will be used in this application.  It is desirable to aim for a system with a minimum cost subject to the condition that it must satisfy the entire requirement. This system is exactly desirable because it is cost effective.4.4 SupportabilityThis system supports extensibility. It is extendable in many ways like avoiding traversing multiplelinks or methods and different sorting techniques, etc.This system is reusable. We can update it to next version supporting latest mobile technology. As it isreusable software thus it will reduce design, coding and testing cost even the amount of code alsosimplifies understanding, which increases the likelihood that code is correct. We can use it in twoways: 1. Sharing of newly written code within a project 2. Reuse of previously written code on new projects Copyright © 2012 by Maryum Afzal. Permission is granted to use, modify, and distribute this document.

    21. 21.

      Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 18All methods are easily understandable as other than the creator of the method can also understand thecode.Interfaces: Graphical interfaces will be provided on libraries desktop and online.Student Graphical InterfaceStudent has a single interface only.Administrator Graphical InterfaceIn 1st administrator interface administrator or librarian can insert the record of books there will be 6fields  Books category  Books name  Books author name  Books specific id  Books edition  Book code (optional) ndIn 2 administrator interface administrator can insert the record of student to which he/she allocatethe book, in this interface followings will be the fields.  Session (student in rolled year)  Department (biology, BSIT etc)  Semester  Shift (morning, afternoon, evening)  Roll no  Student Name  Book idOperations: It will support all the basic requirements of students, faculty members. For librarian andAdministrator management will be quick and simpler than many other library systems.It will save the time of both librarian and students, if a student need a particular book he will go tolibrary and asked from the librarian about the availability of the book than librarians check theavailability of book on her/his personal computer and then tell the student about the book. But withthe help of this web application student can check the availability of the book from everywhere insame network. Other education institute also can use this application.4.5 ImplementationOn front end the technology we are using is: Servlets, HTML, CSS and Java Script while the backendtechnology includes My SQL Server.The minimum server’s hardware requirements should meet the following standards:OS: WindowsProcessor: Pentium 4.0 GHz or higherRAM: 1GB Mb or moreHard Drive: 80 GB or more Copyright © 2012 by Maryum Afzal. Permission is granted to use, modify, and distribute this document.

    22. 22.

      Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 194.6 Legal All the rules and regulations of the institute’s library will be followed like book reservation hours,fine charges, how many days a member can keep the book? Etc.5. Elaboration Phase5.1 Domain Model Copyright © 2012 by Maryum Afzal. Permission is granted to use, modify, and distribute this document.

    23. 23.

      Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 205.2 System Sequence Diagram Copyright © 2012 by Maryum Afzal. Permission is granted to use, modify, and distribute this document.

    24. 24.

      Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 21 Copyright © 2012 by Maryum Afzal. Permission is granted to use, modify, and distribute this document.

    25. 25.

      Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 22 Copyright © 2012 by Maryum Afzal. Permission is granted to use, modify, and distribute this document.

    26. 26.

      Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 23 Copyright © 2012 by Maryum Afzal. Permission is granted to use, modify, and distribute this document.

    27. 27.

      Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 24 Copyright © 2012 by Maryum Afzal. Permission is granted to use, modify, and distribute this document.

    28. 28.

      Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 25 Copyright © 2012 by Maryum Afzal. Permission is granted to use, modify, and distribute this document.

    29. 29.

      Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 265.3 Operational ContractsContract co1: Register OnlineOperation: register (sign-up)Cross reference: use cases: online registrationPre condition: student visit the websitepost Condition: -student filled the form by providing required information -she/he provide the correct information -she/he got registeredContract co2: Book RecordOperation: Add book record (name, author, edition)Cross reference: uses cases: add book recordPre condition: none.Post Condition: -A book record instance B was created. -B was associated with a database. -Adding record was successful.Contract co3: Reserve Book OnlineOperation: reservation (st_librabry_ID)Cross reference: uses cases: online book reservationPre condition: Student visit the websitePost Condition: -Student found the book. -Student entered the system ID. -Book status had been updated.Contract co4: Add MemberOperation: add member record()Cross reference: use cases: member record addPre condition: Administrator enters login information.Post Condition: -A member record was created. -It was associated waith database. -Record successfully added. Copyright © 2012 by Maryum Afzal. Permission is granted to use, modify, and distribute this document.

    30. 30.

      Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 27Contract co5: Search Book onlineOperation: search book online()Cross reference: use cases: online book searchinngPre-condition: Student/Faculty member visits the website.Post Condition: -Student had entered the name. -Result had been displayed. -Student found the required book.6. Logical Architecture6.1 Description of Architecture of SystemIn this following figure is elaborating the concept of 3 tier architecture for library managementsystem6.2 User InterfaceIn this layer we will elaborate the interface for end user. Sample screens and form has beendisplayed above Copyright © 2012 by Maryum Afzal. Permission is granted to use, modify, and distribute this document.

    31. 31.

      Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 286.3 Application LayerThis layer contains interfaces, code, and the business logic. All the programming is done at thislayer. Classes, functions and formulas are written here.6.4 Data Link LayerThis layer contains data that is to be created, maintained and accessed by the system. All the datais kept and arranged in a separate database which can be placed on a remote machine. The data isorganized in clear and understandable manner to avoid any confusion. Copyright © 2012 by Maryum Afzal. Permission is granted to use, modify, and distribute this document.

    32. 32.

      Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 297. Design Phase7.1 Sequence Diagram Copyright © 2012 by Maryum Afzal. Permission is granted to use, modify, and distribute this document.

    33. 33.

      Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 30 Copyright © 2012 by Maryum Afzal. Permission is granted to use, modify, and distribute this document.

    34. 34.

      Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 31 Copyright © 2012 by Maryum Afzal. Permission is granted to use, modify, and distribute this document.

    35. 35.

      Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 32 Copyright © 2012 by Maryum Afzal. Permission is granted to use, modify, and distribute this document.

    36. 36.

      Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 337.2 Collaboration Diagram7.3 Design Class Diagram Copyright © 2012 by Maryum Afzal. Permission is granted to use, modify, and distribute this document.

    37. 37.

      Software Requirements Specification for Library Management System Page 34Appendix A: GlossaryAppendix B: Analysis ModelsAppendix C: To Be Determined List Copyright © 2012 by Maryum Afzal. Permission is granted to use, modify, and distribute this document.

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