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JohnsonLanguage

Language in IndiaKannada, threatened at home

Karnataka's biggest native language is losing ground

Johnson

by

KANNADA is ailing.

It has speakers, of course—nearly 50m of them, mostly in southwestern India. It’s the official language of the state of Karnataka, where active film, television, and music industries broadcast Kannada voices to millions of people. Writers have written in Kannada for nearly 1,500 years, producing a body of literature that includes a complex grammar written in 850. Kannada was the administrative language of some of the subcontinent’s most powerful kingdoms. There are Kannada newspapers and books published constantly. And writers in Kannada, an officially designated “classical language” (referring to its age), have achieved some measure of national prominence.

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    Still, not all is rosy. The demographic balance in Karnataka’s capital Bangalore, now the third-largest city in India, is rapidly changing. Hindi and English are ascending as Bangalore aspires to national and international prominence. Immigrants to the city often decline to learn Kannada. Though primary public education is (by law) conducted in Kannada, the masses in Bangalore’s many private schools learn in Hindi and English. And although a cohort of 50m Kannada voices would be formidable in most of the world—fewer than thirty languages exceed it in native speakers—this group is a mere droplet in India’s teeming sea of people.

    But G Venkatasubbiah, a Kannada lexicographer, doesn’t despair. Mr Venkatasubbiah, popularly known as Professor GV, is a familiar face in Karnataka. He edited the first modern Kannada dictionary—a 9,000-page, 8-volume series—and wrote several dozen other books and articles. His newspaper column Igo Kannada (“This Is Kannada”), which ran for 18 years, was compiled into a bestselling sociolinguistic chronicle of the language. (He is also your correspondent’s great-uncle; a copy of Mr Venkatasubbiah’s friendly orange Kannada-English dictionary is never far away.) Still spry at 100 and ubiquitous at cultural events, Professor GV is, to many, a grandfather figure to the Kannada language.

    To hear him tell it, Kannada is threatened, but the situation is not grave. “Our modern literature is full of life. And Kannada has an ancient literature of great quality—especially epics and poetry. We are not going anywhere,” he said. But if Kannada’s favored position in Bangalore is at risk, he says, the state government is to blame. Most politicians in Karnataka speak Kannada as a first language, but their advocacy efforts are limp. In contrast, the state government in Tamil Nadu is ferociously supportive of Tamil-language initiatives. 

    Mr Venkatasubbiah believes Kannada can be promoted alongside, and not to the exclusion of, languages like Hindi and English. He suggests that the government should strengthen primary education language requirements and sponsor more programs that instill in Kannada-speakers a sense of pride in their language. One example of a rare success: the Kannada Sahitya Sammelana, a major literature conference, was held in Bangalore last year. Mr Venkatasubbiah was host and the events were well-attended. But even though the conference has occurred annually since 1915, it was last in Bangalore in 1970. This was an unfortunate hiatus. The city’s linguistic makeup has changed dramatically since 1970, and a high-profile cultural conference like the Kannada Sahitya Sammelana taking place during such a formative period could have reenergized Kannada learning and writing. For other possible language initiatives, states like Kerala provide models. Kerala has the highest rate of literacy in India: nearly everyone in the state knows how to read the official language, Malayalam. This is partially due to the state government’s strict educational requirements.

    When my father’s family moved to Karnataka over a century ago, they had no choice but to learn Kannada. It’s now hard to imagine newer immigrants feeling the same pressure. In some ways, Kannadigas have begun to lose control of their largest city. A telling example: seven years ago, Kannadigas largely supported changing the spelling of Bangalore to Bengalūru, in line with its original pronunciation. But wary national commentators warned that such a provincial name would undermine Bangalore’s global ambitions. The decision was postponed. (No word yet on the irreparable damage that Bengali, Marathi, and Tamil speakers have wrought on Kolkata, Mumbai, and Chennai.)

    Amidst such circumstances, Karnataka may risk recreating the conditions that led to the rise of Shiv Sena, a militant group, in neighbouring Maharashtra. Shiv Sena began as a violent protest movement founded by Marathi-speaking people who believed that other languages were gaining too much ground in a Marathi state. Like Karnataka, Maharashtra has an outsized center—Mumbai—where Hindi and English are dominant. Like Mumbai, Bangalore attracts immigrants from all over the country, many of whom will never learn the city’s native language. There are warning signs in Karnataka: monolingual English displays are sometimes vandalised or destroyed, with kannaḍada drōhi, “traitor to Kannada”, graffitied across the mess.

    Part of the problem may be that Bangalore, like Mumbai, has a dubious claim to cultural capital of the state. (In Maharashtra, that title goes to Pune.) Bangalore is the indisputable center of activity in southwestern India, but Mysore (pictured), the second city of Karnataka, was only recently the sole cultural and political locus in the region. Prior to that, Hampi (now in ruins) was the capital of a powerful Kannada-speaking empire. Bangalore is not a Delhi or a Kolkata or a Hyderabad, old cities with old cultural institutions. Modern Bangalore, founded relatively recently, grew around a British military post. Many prominent Kannada figures like Mr Venkatasubbiah now call Bangalore home, but theirs is a reluctant migration. Mysore is loudly Kannada; Bangalore is simply loud. Without the sort of endemic pride associated with the ancient, perhaps initiating Kannada pride from Bangalore was always going to be a difficult task.

    Mr Venkatasubbiah recognises that his world is changing. But he is not motivated by the sort of aggrieved conservatism that characterises so many older linguistic commentators. He knows better: language changes. So even while he documents the influx of Hindi and English into the Kannada of his fellow Bangaloreans, he doesn’t despair. “This trend isn’t of any evil consequence. Hindi and English borrowings have already been assimilated, welcomed into the local tongue,” he wrote in an email.

    Yet he isn’t complacent. “Bangalore is changing. Hindi, Urdu, English, Malayalam, Tamil, Telugu, Gujarati, and Marwari are the languages heard on our streets,” he said. His is, ideally, a Kannada city. “The multilingual quality of our Bangalore can be a great advantage, but no scheme would ever be complete without Kannada. If nothing is done, I am afraid that Kannada will be pushed back into second place here.”

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    All India Roundup

    Happy Independence Day Essay in Hindi,English, Tamil, Kannada, Telugu, Punjabi, Bengali for School Children/Kids

    By Leave a Comment

    Independence Day is coming. This 15th August is the India’s 69th Independence Day. This is the day when India got freed from the British rule after 300 years of slavery. On this day, we commemorate all the freedom fighters those who sacrificed their lives for the independence of India. On this day, the people of whole nation irrespective of their caste, look and creed celebrates the freedom by unfurling the flags at the schools, work places, colleges, streets, etc. After the flag hoisting, the celebration follows with the speeches, dances, patriotic songs, distribution of sweets.  So if you are the one looking for information on Indian Independence day essays? Then you are at the right place. You can find the articles related to Indian Independence day speech and essays here.

    India got independence on 15th of august in 1947, so people of India celebrate this special day every year as the Independence Day on 15th of August. Every year, on this day, a big celebration will be organized in the National Capital, New Delhi. The Prime Minister of India hoists the National Flag in the early morning at the Red fort where millions of people participate in the Independence Day ceremony. During the celebration at Red Fort, many tasks including March past are performed by the Indian army and cultural events are performed by the school students. After the Flag hosting, national Anthem (JANA GANA MANA) is recited.  During the Independence Day celebration, Flag hoisting ceremonies and cultural programmes take place in governmental and non-governmental institutions throughout the country. Schools and colleges conduct flag hoisting ceremonies and cultural events for students and teachers.

    For the school children, here are the excellent Indian Independence Day essays which may help you to participate in the event competitions and also prepare your speech for the special day. These following essays covers up the topics like importance of our Independence Day and all are the great personalities behind that achievement, main issues which can be spoken for better improvement of our country and to bring about the change. At this day, as being an Indian, we should feel proud and must take an oath to keep ourselves loyal and patriotic in order to save our motherland from any type of attack or humiliation by other countries. Those who are planning to participate in the essay writing competition on this India’s Independence Day, this article would help you more to substantiate your preparation.

    Independence Day Short Essay in English for School Children/Kids

    India got its freedom from the British Rule on 15th August, 1947. Hence, we celebrate our Independence Day on 15th of August every year. There is national holiday on Independence Day.

    We all know that Freedom is not free. It took years of efforts, non-violence and other movement by our national freedom fighter to attain Freedom.

    On 15th of August, 1947, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru raised the tri-colour national flag of India at Red Fort, Delhi.

    Independence Day is observed with great enthusiasm all over the country.

    The school children take out colourful processions very early in the morning. They sing the glory of India. The procession end in the Central Park.

    There the National Flag is hoisted and the National anthem is sung in chorus. Everybody takes a new oath to serve the country and to do everything to restore her lost glory.

    The elders remember the martyrs who sacrificed their lives in the struggle for independence. They pay homage to the great leaders who suffered a lot to win our freedom.

    Independence Day 400 words Essay in English for School Children/Kids

    Independence Day in India is the most important day for every Indian citizen as our country got freedom from the British rule. We celebrate this day every year on 15th of August from 1947. Our country is counted as the world’s largest democracy all over the world. India become an independent country on 15th of August in 1947 after sacrifices of thousands of freedom fighters (such as Mahatma Gandhi, Bhagat Singh, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Moulana Abul Kalam Azad, Sukhdev, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Lala Lajpat Rai, Lokmanya Balgangadhar Tilak, Chandra Shekhar Azad, etc) who worked hard to get independence from the British rule.
    Each and every Indian celebrate his/her freedom in their own way such as decorating their places of celebration, raising National Flag, march past, watching favourite movies, dancing in the streets, singing National Anthem or patriotic songs or participating in many social activities organized at public places. Independence Day is celebrated by the government of India every year when the current Prime Minister of India raises out tricolour national flag at the Red Fort in Delhi followed by Indian army parade, march past, National Anthem recitation, speech and other cultural activities.
    Independence Day in India is celebrated with the National Flag salute by the 21 guns firing. Similarly Independence Day celebration takes place in every states of the country where Governor and the Chief Minister of the states become main guests. Some people get prepared in the early morning and wait for the speech of the Indian Prime Minister at TV. On 15th of August people get inspired with the history of India’s independence and do some social activities like that and watch movies based on the patriotic themes.
    The great non-violence movement of the Mahatma Gandhi, Bapu, helps a lot to our freedom fighters to get freedom from the British rule after 200 long years of struggle. The hard struggle for Independence of India has worked as a huge moving force for every Indian which bind them together at one place whether they belong to different castes, classes, cultures to ritual beliefs to fight them from British rule for their rights. Even women (Aruna Asaf Ali, Vijay Laxmi Pandit, Sarojine Naidu, Kasturba Gandhi, Kamala Nehru, Annie Besant, etc) came out from their houses and played their great role in getting freedom.
    This day also inspires us to follow the teaching of peace and non-violence that was preached by Mahatma Gandhi, the father of our nation.

    Independence Day reminds us of our duty to the country. As the meeting ends with a song, sweets are distributed among all. Then we go to the slums and distribute food and clothes among the poor. When we come back home we feel very happy.
    Must Read : Hitler is Responsible for India’s Independence!

    Independence Day Essay in English for School Children/Kids

    15th of August every year is a very special day in the history of India. It is a day where India was free from the 200 years old Slavery under the British Empire. Indians celebrate this days not less than an festival. It is a day to cherish the memories of the freedom struggle, so that we keep this freedom intact with love and brotherhood.

    It was not a day or a week or a month or a year of struggle which got this freedom to our country which we are enjoying now. It was indeed a struggle started in the year 1857. Journey of the Freedom Struggle for Independence was written with blood of our freedom fighters and matyrs across the country. Let me take you to back in history for a quick recap.

    Indian Independence Day - 15th August 1947
    It was in 1498 AD, when Portuguese explorer, Vasco da gama landed at calicut. Along with him European traders first reached Indian sub continent for the spice trading.The decline of Mughal Empire in the beginning of 18th century, paved a path for the Britishers to establish a first foothold in Indian Politics.

    FIRST WAR OF INDEPENDENCE

    The Sepoy Mutiny or the first war of Independence was fought in 1857 at Meerut.The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major turning point in the history of modern India.

    RISE OF INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT

    In 1885, Inspired by A O Hume, Indian National Congress was formed. However, it was by 1900, congress emerged as an all india political organization

    PARTITION OF BENGAL

    In 1905, Lord Curzon, divided the province of Bengal. It was one of the blow to the National Movement which was growing in the country.

    ARRIVAL OF MAHATMA GANDHI TO MAINSTREAM STRUGGLE

    Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, Our Mahatma Gandhi, did something which until now, no one was able to do so far. Gandhi got all the Indians to unite and against the british. His method of fighting was accepted across the country. He preached non-violence, boycotts, protests , marches, fasts etc to get the freedom for the country.

    NON-COOPERATION MOVEMENTS

    In 1920, first Satyagraha movement was started. Aim of this movement was to urge all the indians to use Khadi and the Indian Material  as alternatives to the products being shipped by Britain. It was a major blow to the British Business.

    FAMOUS DANDI MARCH / SALT SATYAGRAHA

    Gandhiji took a march of about 400 kilometers from Ahmedabad to Dandi in Gujarat in 1930. This Dandi March is also called as Salt Satyagraha. This March was to protest against the British taxes on Salt.

    QUIT INDIA MOVEMENT

    On 8th August, 1942, Mahatma Gandhi called for a major civil disobedience movement called as the Quit India Movement. The Demand here was to get immediate Independence of India and not to send Indians to World War II on behalf of Britishers.

    INDIAN INDEPENDENCE AND PARTITION OF INDIA

    Owing to the pressure across, British Empire finally gave up to hold Indian and awarded India its freedom. However, it did it so with the Partition of India in to India and Pakistan.
    British Parliament passed Indian Independence Act 1947 and at 11:57 PM on 14th August, 1947, pakistan was declared a seperate nation, and at 12:02, just after Midnight on 15th August, 1947 India became a seperate Independent nation.

    It was then First Prime Minister of Free India, Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru who said the following words:

    At the Stroke of midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake for its life and freedom…

    Independence-Day-2015-Essay-English

    Independence Day Essay in Hindi for School Children/Kids

    hh0015_thumb

    Happy-Independence-Day-Speech-In-Hindi 15 August Independence Day Essay In Hindi

    Happy-Independence-Day-Speech-In-MarathiIndependence-Day-Speech-in-Hindi

    Independence Day Essay in Tamil for School Children/Kids

    Happy-Independence-Day -Speech-In-Tamil

    Independence Day Essay in Telugu for School Children/Kids

    Happy-Independence-Day-Speech-In-Telgu

    Independence Day Essay in Bengali for School Children/Kids

    Happy-Independence-Day-Speech-In-Bengali

    Independence Day Essay in Kannada for School Children/Kids

    Happy-Independence-Day-Speech-In-Kannada

    Independence Day Essay in Punjabi for School Children/Kids

    Happy-Independence-Day-Speech-In-Punjabi

    Happy Independence Day Essay in Hindi,English, Tamil, Kannada, Telugu, Punjabi, Bengali for School Children/Kids

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