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The Phoenix Art Museum: The Impact of Art

– As an avid supporter of the arts, immediately I was drawn to the Phoenix Art Museum as my choice for a building of cultural interest in Arizona. However, my main reason for choosing this location is that it has introduced me to new ideas, concepts, and works of art, which in turn have sparked creativity and imagination within me. For instance, upon stepping inside this sleek and modern building, one is met with a massive round light display in the lobby, which is both intriguing and beautiful to look at….   [tags: Art]


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The Masterminds of Art

– The artists I have chosen for my research paper are Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo Buonarroti. The period the two artists lived in was the Renaissance period. The term Renaissance means “rebirth”. Many things were reborn during this time period, but we are going to discuss art. For my first question, where did you both study art and how has it influenced your work. Leonardo responded, “When I was 15, my father apprenticed me to a renowned artist, Andrea Del Verrocchio, in Florence.” Even at a young age, Leonardo displayed amazing talent….   [tags: Art]


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The Art of Benin

– Western attitudes to African people and culture have always affected how their art was appreciated and this has also coloured the response to the art from Benin. Over time concepts of ‘Race’, defined as a distinct group with a common linage, and ‘Primitive’ which pertains to the beginning or origin, , have been inextricably linked with the perception of Africa. The confusion of the two in the minds of people at the end of the 19th centaury, and some of the 20th, caused a sense of superiority amongst the ‘White Races’ that affected every aspect of their interaction with ‘the Black’….   [tags: Art ]


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The Art of Drawing

– The simplistic art of contemporary drawing has always been concerned with making marks. Different artist exploit lines to make marks, which come together to express or create a feeling the particular artist is communicating. Drawing or making marks has been around longer than any other art form as cavemen where the first to discover the art. Since this time artist have been able to manipulate line and colour using not only pencil or graphite, but using charcoal, ink, water colour pencils and micro pens, creating a mixed media artwork classified as contemporary drawing art….   [tags: Art ]


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Art: Comparison and Contrast of 19th Century Art

– Everyone has been created unique and there is no other that is the like anyone else. People think different, dress different and like and dislike certain things. This is similar to the artists of the nineteenth century including Pierre Etienne Theodore Rousseau and Joseph Mallord William Turner. They are both artists during the nineteenth century and were painted at the same time; however, there is a difference between their styles, their point of view, and the scenery. However there are similarities between the two paintings….   [tags: Art]


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Advances in Art

– There are many aspects of art, literature, dance, science, etc. that have gotten society to where it is today. We have come from the days where owning a slave was normal, to serving prison time for treating someone unequally. Art has influenced our society ever since the past began being recorded. Cave paintings have been found all over the world. These findings prove people felt the need to express themselves in ways other than words. As far back as ancient times, the motivation for artists to create art is unknown (Janaro 118)….   [tags: Art ]


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The Many Forms of Art

– Throughout the cultural history of man, objects have been created to entertain, record, confront, enrich, clarify, communicate, reveal, to order and disorder, with or without a purpose. Yet the definition of what is art is obscure, we are able to recognise for ourselves but not express concisely what art is. Art has ‘a complicated network of overlapping series of similarities’ (Law, 2003) however there is not one feature that all art has in common. The classification of Art does not fit into the classic logic argument where to be defined as art the object must have a stated characteristic, as in the manner of classifying a dog, computer, house or boat….   [tags: Art]


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1145 words | (3.3 pages)
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Meaning Mishaps and the Nature of Art

– Have you ever been confused about the purpose or meaning behind a certain piece of art. In my opinion, art is viewed many different ways. The artist will create a piece of art with a certain intended meaning, but it will most likely not be viewed in that way. When a spectator views a piece of art, they take into account their past experiences, and since everyone has gone through different things, their interpretations are different, as you can imagine. The nature of art is created when the artist intends one thing, but the spectator sees the art differently; and therefore changes the meaning when they spread their personal opinions….   [tags: art, ]


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Rococo Art in Europe and America

– The Rococo era in Europe was a time of new ideas, thoughts and expressions. High society adapted to the change in culture when Louis XIV of France died. The Rococo era/time frame brought in a new wave of elegance and sophistication. This period is often referred to as the century of revolutions. Philosophy, science, rhetorical works and industries were all part of the age of revolution, a bevy of ideas and breakthroughs in the world of men. This age influenced American art only in the sense that it became appealingly elegant….   [tags: Art]


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Art & Liberty

– In “The Rebel an essay on man in revolt,” Albert Camus (1956) muses on the origins of rebellion and art and their significance to the individual and society. While reading Camus, I began to think about how important art is and how appalling opposition to the arts can be. This is what inspired me to write this paper, but my intention is not to directly address, in depth, any of the many and various issues concerning arts. I’ve set out to show that art is essential to human existence and freedom. If, by examining the origins and functions of art, I am able to illustrate its necessity and inevitability in a free society, my hope is that this will move the reader to take up and champion the arts…   [tags: Art ]


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2652 words | (7.6 pages)
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Breakthroughs in the Evolution of Art

– Throughout history, art has been ever-changing. There are four main periods that I believe made breakthroughs in the evolution of art. Firstly, I will talk about Baroque, which is dark and emotional, that definitely reflects the political tensions during that time. Next, I will talk about Romanticism, which is based more on nature and outdoors. This period also showcases artwork that is light, happy, and more imaginative than previous periods. Then, I will show how Impressionism artwork is light and rather carefree….   [tags: Art ]


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The Chapel of Vence: Art and Enlightenment

– The Chapel of Vence: Art and Enlightenment Best known for his use of color, Henri Matisse cleverly cultivated his status as a modern artist using many different styles of painting from Impressionism to Fauvism. The artwork of Matisse has been a milestone in the history of painting. Henri Matisse’s self-proclaimed masterpiece, however, a chapel in Vence, France, is a small, minimalist building. The amalgamation of modern art and the sacred creates a unique spiritual experience in that it welcomes Christians and non-Christians alike to appreciate the artist’s religious symbolism….   [tags: Art]


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Seven Days in the Art World

– Sarah Thornton has described, in detail, various people during her experience in the art world. Her description of each individual is supposed to be of an unbiased opinion. While reading, it is shown that such writing is not always presented; leading the readers to have a biased opinion formed for them. This is shown as she stumbled on Hans Ulrich Obrist; an art curator, historian, and critic. Thornton quickly jumped to a conclusion of Obrist’s attitude towards the art world; making her “nonjudgmental participant observer” (Thornton 256) hard to come by….   [tags: Art]


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Brutalism in Art

– Modern Movement Architecture is the most visible way of art, and every building has a certain type of style that resembles and tells the story of the time and place they were built in. Several movements took place during the 19th/20th Century. Some of the movements were: Art Nouveau: It is characterized by having an abundance of odd shapes such arcs, curves, and designs. This style was prominent particularly in Paris, where the artist Siegfried Bing displayed this kind of style in the “Maison de l’Art Nouveau”….   [tags: Art]


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Reflecting The Viewpoints of Time in Art

– Throughout history, ideals such as heroism and patriotism as well as concepts such as war and violence, have acquired different connotations. During the 19th century, they had a positive connotation. With the occurrence of revolutions war and violence was justified under the ideals of patriotism and heroism. During the 21st century, society began to was in the process of developing a more sophisticated view. The century was even more violent than the 19th century with conflicts such as the world wars and in particular the Vietnam War….   [tags: Art]


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1124 words | (3.2 pages)
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The Changing Art of Wayang Theater

– Introduction The first time I came across Wayang Kulit, its ghostly forms left a lasting impression on me. At a time when animation is exploring unparalleled new arenas of realism, it is amazing that these comparatively simple, silhouetted puppets were able to be so memorable. As I delved into my research on this subject matter, I found that this ancient Indonesian art form has transformed and been transformed by the various cultures it touches. At the same time, however, the decline in popularity of this art form among Indonesians has traditionalists worried….   [tags: Art ]


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2161 words | (6.2 pages)
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Art, Liberation, Rebellion and Relevance

– The intention of this paper is to illuminate art as an adaptive tool in the sociological and psychological processes of rebellion and liberation and to illustrate that the inevitable function of art is to reveal, while exemplifying the importance of art in everyday life. What are the roles of art in rebellion and liberation; are these roles similar in kind and in scale from person to population and why does this matter. These are the questions that when answered will achieve the goal of this paper….   [tags: Art ]


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LA County Museum of Art

– LA County Museum of Art (LACMA) The Los Angeles County Museum of Art, or LACMA as it is commonly known, is among the world’s largest art collections in North America, and to be specific enough the most prevalent artwork in the western United States (Compton 165). This massive art museum has a collection of over 100,000 artworks, which extends from the ancient times to present days (Gilbert and Mills 174). These collections, which are mainly from Asia, Africa, Europe, Latin-America and America itself, are grouped into several departments within the museums buildings, depending on the region, culture, media, and time period….   [tags: Art ]


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1267 words | (3.6 pages)
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Creativity in Various Art Forms

– Music and other art forms often go hand in hand. Creativity is not just a one-note deal or rather it is not confined to a singular aspect or form. Oftentimes it is interlaced into many forms, such as, music, writing, artwork, fashion and much more. Like a tree, creativity grows and extends out into infinite directions rooting itself in society. One such artist is Brandon Boyd. During the day he is a contemporary artist and by night he is a singer-songwriter for an internationally recognized rock band, Incubus….   [tags: Art ]


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LA County Museum of Art

– The Los Angeles County Museum of Art, is among the world’s largest art collections, and to be specific enough the most prevalent artwork in the western United States (Compton 165). This massive art museum has a collection of over a hundred thousand artworks, whose origin extends from the prehistoric times to present days (Gilbert and Mills 174). These collections are classified into several departments within the museums buildings, depending on their region of origin, culture they represent, and time period from which they were found….   [tags: Art ]


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1207 words | (3.4 pages)
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Art as Expression

– Artists are central to cultural, political and social discourses in the world. They are here not only to inspire us, but to provoke us as well. Four artists that broke social, political and cultural barriers were, Rene Magritte, John Heartfield Jackson Pollock and Otto Dix. While the artists were involved in different movements, each one made revolutionary statements with their works. Artists have a responsibility to use their works as a weapon to the status quo and to break these cultural and social barriers….   [tags: Art ]


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1836 words | (5.2 pages)
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Impressionist effects on Modern Art

– Impressionist painting remains a significantly attractive period in the history of modern art and deemed by many as the top appreciated by the public. …Sequence of exhibitions, plentiful literary texts and record gross sales yield more of an indication of today’s extraordinary resonance of pieces by Impressionist painters, a number of which are imprinted on our creative conscience In their time, Impressionist pieces appeared to be so shockingly modern, that it took their coevals more than thirty years to admit them….   [tags: art]


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798 words | (2.3 pages)
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Fine Art, Fashion and Design

– My essay is going to be a discussion on whether fine art, fashion and designers are linked with each other. On starting my essay I looked up the definition of Fine art, the term is used to distinguish the variation of creative art forms, developed by humans. Some of the many concepts which fall under this category are painting, drawing, calligraphy, sculpture etc. I agree that fine art uses lots of visually appealing methods which seem graceful, like calligraphy the work produced is quite delicate and pretty….   [tags: Art]


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1289 words | (3.7 pages)
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Futurism: An Extinct Art Movement

– Futurism was created on very innovative and radical ideals, which is the same reason why the pure Futurism art form was deemed dead before it really began. In the early 20th century, there was a new art movement being created. This new movement was called Futurism. It did not only adhere to only one type of art, but was found throughout painting, sculpture, poetry, theatre, architecture, and music. In 1909, Filippo Tommaso Marinetti released a public declaration in response to Romanticism called “Manifesto of Futurism” that was published on the front page of a French newspaper called Le Figaro….   [tags: Art]


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The Art of Pacita Abad

– The artist Pacita Abad was born in Basco, Batanes, a small island located near the most northern part of the Philippines. Her parent’s involvement in politics influenced her choice in her college education as well as her early art works. Prior to her career as a painter she received her Bachelor of Arts in Political Science from the University of the Philippines. She continued on to law school and became more deeply involved in social and political activism for her people and against President Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos….   [tags: Art ]


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2254 words | (6.4 pages)
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Digital vs. Traditional Art

– “From the point of view of art, there are no concrete or abstract forms, but only forms which are more or less convincing lies.”(Wagner, par. 1) So what is art. A painted picture with lines, figures or faces that has meaning; or digitally altered shapes with meaning. Art can be any product of a creative process. Graphic Design (digital design) as a discipline has a relatively recent history, with the name ‘graphic design” first coined by William Addison Dwiggins in 1922. (Wikipedia. par. 2) Digital art is an art created on the computer in digital form….   [tags: Art]


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Revolutionary Work of Art

– Walter Benjamin emphasizes in his essay, “The Work of Art in the Age of its Technological Reproducibility” that technology used to make an artwork has changed the way it was received, and its “aura”. Aura represents the originality and authenticity of a work of art that has not been reproduced. The Sistine Chapel in the Vatican is an example of a work that has been and truly a beacon of art. It has brought a benefit and enlightenment to the art of painting, and it has an exemplary aura that cannot be replaced….   [tags: Art ]


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1861 words | (5.3 pages)
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Tolstoy’s “What Is Art?”

– Leo Tolstoy compares art to speech by mentioning that art is a form of communication. The communication that Tolstoy writes about in “What Is Art?” is of two types, good and bad. According to Tolstoy, good art is what carries humanity towards perfection (Tolstoy 383). It is this movement forward in humanity that is emphasized by Tolstoy. Tolstoy informs his readers that speech is what teaches knowledge from human history, but art is what teaches the emotions of mankind’s past. As knowledge becomes obsolete in society it is replaced by new and more relevant information….   [tags: Art]


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Religion Expressed Through Art

– Religion through art form provides us with a vision into a realm of heavenly beauty. Religion provides us with a sense of spirit fulfilment. It is only through worship and devotion that we feel connected to God. The practice of devotion and worship takes place in churches and cathedrals. It is these places that help us gain knowledge and a deeper more spiritual meaning of God. The churches and cathedrals are the very foundation of religious practice and devotion to God in my opinion. They are known as temples, ceremonial places, and are places of worship to God….   [tags: Art]


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The Rauschenberg Art Piece

– At the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the Rauschenberg art piece was definitely one form of art I once did not consider to be art. The artwork is not exactly a painting to me but certainly an illustration of something that is connected to real day to day objects. It was created by the artist Robert Rauschenberg in 1954. It is oil on canvas painting which is eighty by ninety six in size and the materials used are oil, paper, fabric and metal which are all on wood. It looks quite messy, with materials like newspapers, cut out fabrics, the colors’ drips and how they are splashed around….   [tags: Art]


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923 words | (2.6 pages)
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Art, Design and Culture

– There is some debate about the purpose of The Broighter Horde, in which The Broighter Boat was found. Originally thought to be a votive offering uncovered on the English coast, the courts were quick to dismiss this argument in order to take possession of the find and donate them to the Royal Irish Academy. The sculptor of the boat is unknown but it stands out as a prime example of artisans’ skill during the La Tène period of Celtic craftsmanship and artistry. The La Tène period defined the Celts as a viable culture….   [tags: Art]


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1777 words | (5.1 pages)
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Paraskeva Clark’s Wartime Art

– Before World War II women were labeled as inferior and incapable compared to men in the Canadian workforce. The women’s traditional role as homemaker reflected the social norms, and values of the time. Change came during World War II when Women temporarily filled non-traditional roles in the wartime labour force and society (MacIvor 14). The entrance of women into society and out from their roles as homemakers was monumental as it was the first time women were seen as capable individuals, held paid positions, and proved they could do “man’s work”….   [tags: Art]


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2191 words | (6.3 pages)
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Rape in Romanesque Art

– The Rape of Ganymede capital in San Madeleine in Vézelay is a depiction of the story of the rape or abduction of Ganymede. On its front face the capital features an eagle holding the young shepherd boy, Ganymede, in its mouth. Ganymede is being held upside down helplessly with a look of terror on his face. On the left are two adults holding their heads and staring helplessly at the eagle taking the boy. On the right side is a demon looking out at the viewer sticking its tongue out in happiness, as if to taunt us….   [tags: Art]


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1928 words | (5.5 pages)
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Art Therapy: A Necessary Tool for Success

– Art is the self-expression of someone or something that shows the hidden or underlying emotions upon which are found within the unconscious mind (Merriam-Webster). Art can tell stories of past events which were significant to that culture or person. This could include things such as hunts or sacrifices to please the gods. As society and people started to evolve and become more and more like modern day society, so did art and how society viewed it. At the beginning of the renaissance in Europe, many new artists and ways of thinking began emerging which soon became the mainstream way of thinking….   [tags: Art]


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2252 words | (6.4 pages)
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The Modern Civilization in Contemporary Installation Art

– The history of art has been around before written language. In the ancient time, people drew images of hunting and pregnant women because food and reproduction were the most crucial factors to survive during these periods. However, in this postmodern time period, many contemporary installation artists use sculptural materials and other mixed media to transform the way a particular space is practiced. Objects used in contemporary art have a range from each day of our life or natural materials to new media such as installation, performance, video or sound….   [tags: Art]


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1964 words | (5.6 pages)
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The Interconnectivity of Graffiti Art in Popular Culture

– Abstract- This lesson will encapsulate the interconnectivity of graffiti art in popular culture. Graffiti has been present since the early times of the Roman Empire and Ancient Greece. This form of art has evolved into a type of self expression and can be used as a way to communicate social and political views. Some forms of graffiti are considered works of art and others as an act of vandalism. Overall, the main idea behind graffiti art is an underlying meaning or message. Students will learn how a symbol that is so popular can be used to represent personal identification for all to view….   [tags: Art]


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1870 words | (5.3 pages)
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Analysis of album art of the 20th Century

– Music has always had a strong influence on people everywhere in the world and nothing points to this ever changing. There is an enormous amount of genres and sub genres, new hits and old classics, songs and compositions for everyone and this number is forever increasing. It is virtually impossible to listen to all songs ever written and hardly anyone would try to attempt that, yet each band and singer would want to have their music noticed. This is why album art is an essential part of any music CD, an eye catcher that can make a consumer purchase a piece of music that they might not even like….   [tags: art]


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1626 words | (4.6 pages)
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Art and Architecture in Germany and Czech Republic

– My trip to Germany and the Czech Republic was very exciting. At first, I was not sure what to think about it. They are foreign countries and this was my first trip out of the United States. I did however think they would be much different from America. I knew that there would be many older buildings and castles in each country, since they are older than the United States. I also did not expect to see as many skyscrapers in these cities. I expected all of the cities to be beautiful and have a lot of unique architecture….   [tags: Art]


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An Investigation of Art in the Age of Mechanical Duplication

– Introduction Accounting for the fact that an essay is contrived with purpose and intent of reading a written article on paper, a poster on the other hand is contrived with the purpose and intent to be placed on the wall for clear and easy visualization. Consequently posters are not to include large amount of text in order to get their points across to viewers. They need to be well succinct and well organised to get their message across to viewers on the spot. Accordingly, images are message that is intended, expressed or signified and people will view and use them in many ways….   [tags: Art]


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1001 words | (2.9 pages)
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The Art of Hans Hofmann and Kamimir Malevich

– Modern day art has passed beyond the realms of serving the state and religion and to illustrate history or to paint a plain object. Art at the beginning of the 20th centaury became about something more, feeling. Artwork started to become deeper and filled with a purpose an idea which would hide itself behind reality. The new revolution of art pushed the boundaries of reality into something that expressed the inner of the artist. A quote from Max Beckman describes these feeling, “What I want to show in my work is the idea which hides itself behind so-called reality….   [tags: art]


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My Feelings On Various Works of Art

– I would define art as transferring creativity and imagination into tangible manifestations, whether it is music, paintings, sculptures, drawings, portraits, or dance. Art comes in many colors, themes, sizes, styles, and forms. Much of this, I think, is due to the individual artist’s social interaction, ethnic and cultural background, and social status. This could’ve held true for the past as well, but in today’s world, the amount of time exposed to informational media (television/radio news, computers with internet access) have to be added to the list of influences….   [tags: Art]


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1053 words | (3 pages)
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Graffiti an Art or Not

– Art surrounds our plant from cost to cost, and it changes our views on the world. Although it seems we still can not distinguish art from mockery, it forces us to look at the ugly side of a modern art that is vulgar. Graffiti a term that comes from the Italian word that means to scratch known as graffio (“Graffiti.” Issues and Controversies). Street art as some call it has become very popular among want to be artist;however, there is one problem it’s illegal. The law should not put up with this type art because it destructive to the public….   [tags: art, mockery, modern art, vulgar]


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927 words | (2.6 pages)
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The Cultural Art of Body Art

– … The procedure is said to be performed at dawn to help minimize the loss of blood, dawn being the coldest part of the day. The patrilineal stripes declare the clan membership of the children, and ensure that they are not denied the entitlements and rights of the clan members. There are many differences in the length, depth, spacing, and the placement of the stripes on the face. It may seem difficult to be able to be able to tell so much information about someone simply from the stripes on their face, but as Orie explains, for those that can read the traditional stripes, a brief look at someone’s face is enough to identify the town, regional affiliation, or family of that person (Orie, 201…   [tags: body art, decorations, cultural groups]


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1081 words | (3.1 pages)
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Stained Glass Art: Visual Emotions

– Stained glass window artists capture not only artistic techniques, but architectural methods as well to construct their works of art. These techniques have subsisted for thousands of years and have survived through multiple cultures. Colors, patterns, and scenes draw an emotional response out of a viewer as well as portray a visual interpretation of a story, scripture, or moment in time. In order to completely comprehend the extent of the art and architecture of a stained glass window, an individual must first have knowledge of a stained glass window’s origin….   [tags: Art]


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The Importance of Art

– Art is a form of human expression. Art can be seen as the artist sleight of hand on his mood. Art is in various media from posters to public wall of which we call “graffiti”. Art is elusive as the use of colors shapes and the surface used adds a new dimension. Art portrays various ideas, feelings such as triumph, love, happiness, sorrow and boredom in loss to mention a few. Art is beauty and creativity. During man’s evolution art has progressed over in its most primitive state up to its most modernized versions today….   [tags: art, history,]


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647 words | (1.8 pages)
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Accepting All Art

– Art encompasses everything. It is such a broad subject that it can be found in the most bizarre places – like a house’s structural wall built out of beer cans. Artists are always trying to push boundaries and think outside the canvas, as it were. After all, why create art that has already been done. The inherent problem with this is that now, because so much has already been done, everyone wants the excuse to call anything art. Worse – society’s etiquette teaches us that we should be accepting of it because of its status as “art”….   [tags: Art]


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864 words | (2.5 pages)
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Digital Art: The Central Point Between Technology and Art

– The digital Art is the central point between Technology and Art with a great impact to new development on presentation and communication to viewers. This concern the application of digital technology and the use of article to give information through art work. The impact of technology within an arts context lies above all in the fact that the technology is used to beauty Viewers who see how technology is used, begin to realize that it can be used in creative and other ways than were intended. In addition, certain aspects of technology can be presented better and clearer within an arts context….   [tags: art, technology, digital, art, ]


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759 words | (2.2 pages)
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The Art Gallery of New South Wales: A Virtual Experience

– 3. Many art galleries/museums now offer elaborate websites. This virtual experience raises many factors that challenge the ways in which we conventionally view art. Discuss this statement through a close analysis of the web site of the AGNSW (www.artgallery.nsw.gov.au/). In particular, you should look at the sections dealing with Exhibitions, Collection and Education, especially ‘my virtual gallery’ that appears in Education. In the 21st century age of technology, there is a constant conflict between the reception of art through a gallery website as opposed to experiencing it in the physical space of the art gallery or museum….   [tags: Art]


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1914 words | (5.5 pages)
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Langa’s Art Analysis

– In Chapter 3 of her book Langa looks at 1930s prints of labor-related images as part of her larger project of offering a more nuanced reading of 1930s prints as active social documents on which the multiple and contradictory forces shaping America at the time found a visual outlet. She thus places these images within a larger socio-historical context to expand our understanding of what she prefers to call “social viewpoint, ” as opposed to “social realist,” prints by looking at them as multidimensional cultural artifacts….   [tags: Art]


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1011 words | (2.9 pages)
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Before Our Eyes: The Collections of The Minneapolis Institute of Art

– The Minneapolis Institute of Art has many beautiful collections. The evening class that we art students attended proved to be informative as well as relaxing. The class covered looking at what we had recently studied in the first section. The ancient near east, Egyptian, Greek, Roman, Etruscan and Aegean art were the subjects of our evening. Everyone was able to see the Doryphorus, which was accented by decorative streamers hanging from the ceiling. We were also able to observe pieces that were similar to ones studied….   [tags: Art]


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845 words | (2.4 pages)
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The Total Work of Art or the Total Way of Life

– The Total Work of Art or the Total Way of Life Gesamtkunstwerk is a term that literally means the total work of art. However, it contains too many conceptions in itself. First appearance of this term is in Richard Wagner’s Die Kunst und die Revolution [“The Art and Revolution”], dated 1849. Roughly, Gesamtkunstwerk is a notion that “heaping together the various arts – architecture, landscape painting, dance, drama and music” (Daverio, 1986). However, this Wagnerian concept brought a discussion around the totality of an art work….   [tags: Art ]


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2539 words | (7.3 pages)
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The Magic of the Conservator: Ensuring Art Does Not Disappear

– The Magic of the Conservator – Ensuring Art Does Not Disappear As with many advances in industry and technology, we can thank war for increasing the interest in research for art conservation. After the Great War, the British Museum unpacked its collections after wartime storage in the Underground railway tunnels. Many items had unexpectedly deteriorated in a relatively short time; iron had rusted, bronze developed green corrosion, pottery and stone objects were covered in growth of salt crystals….   [tags: Art]


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1351 words | (3.9 pages)
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Post-Impressionism and Van Gogh: The Conduit in Art History.

– Visual opulence, creativity, inimitable vision, and a style that is highly influential are the many characteristics of an admired movement in art history, that being of the Post-Impressionism movement (1875-1892). This movement, which was a by-product of the Impressionism movement, is the bridging gap between the two movements known as Realism and Expressionism. Post-Impressionism takes on some of the stylistic characteristics of these movements; however, it does not contain the all too glossy visuals of Realism or the heavily fantastic visuals of Expressionism, rather it is the intermediary of these two poles….   [tags: Art ]


Term Papers

1921 words | (5.5 pages)
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The Discipline of Chinese Painting: An Internal Reflection of Life & Art

– When one comes into contact with a Chinese painting, the style is almost instantly recognizable. The attention to detail, craftsmanship, and vast depictions of elaborate landscapes appear to pay homage to mother earth in an attempt to reach a state of eternal balance with nature and life. Before this equilibrium could be achieved, one must attain internal discipline. This was required before one began mastering their brushwork in Chinese culture. In Mai Mai Sze’s “The Way of Chinese Painting,” 1959, New York: Vintage Books, Random House, Sze discusses the philosophy known as Daoism/Tao, or “the way.” Before one became a skilled painter, one trained in the personal disciplines of poetry, art,…   [tags: Art ]


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1547 words | (4.4 pages)
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Art and Its Basis in Convention

– Introduction ‘Art’ is commonly regarded as of high spirituality and aesthetic value, showing the intellectual and talented sides of the ‘great’ artists. However, many sociologists viewed the ‘art world’ as being constituted by networks of cultural production, distribution and consumption (Becker, 1984; Kadushin, 1976). These three networks are indeed collectively and mundanely formed. This paper aims to examine the question of how art is related to collective conventions, commercial drive, class interests and state sponsorship, with reference to the ‘art world’ in Hong Kong….   [tags: Art Market, Art Commercialization]


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2002 words | (5.7 pages)
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Egyptian Art vs. Sumerian Art

– When comparing two forms of artwork, it may be quite difficult to tell them apart. And when those artworks are thousands upon thousands of years old, it certainly does not help the issue. When looking at both Egyptian and Sumerian art, there is certainly a resemblance to some degree. Both are from before our time, and both express the beliefs and culture of their respective lineage. But if you delve deeper, you can certainly start to see a difference. Egyptian art is known widely for its hieroglyphics, while Sumerian art may be seen as focusing more on the naturalistic views on the human form….   [tags: art, egytian and sumerian culture]


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1152 words | (3.3 pages)
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Describing Two Works of Art

– Abstract In this assignment, I will provide the information on two, specific work of Arts that are unconventional. Therefore, after all the research that I preformed I actually discovered more than two, of course, but I decided to go with the most interesting to me. Justin Gignac created the first work of Art that I choose and the second one I choose was a building. The building is located in Sopot, Poland and it is called The Crooked House. In ending, this paper will have all the information about the work of Arts and the facts that back up the reason for the Artwork being unconventional….   [tags: Art Essay, Art Appreciation]


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1477 words | (4.2 pages)
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The Impact of Art

– “Why do people look at pictures?” my young brother naively asked me. Looking at his big blue eyes, which were so desperate for an answer, I found myself dumbfounded by how these four simple words, arranged in that specific order, carried such profound philosophical baggage. Not being able to come up with a clear answer, I mumbled, “It’s complicated.” My answer troubled me more than the question itself. I wasn’t willing to accept the fact that I couldn’t answer such a fundamental, and simultaneously complex question posed by a seven-year-old….   [tags: Understanding Art Works, Reflection]


Term Papers

1819 words | (5.2 pages)
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What Is Art?

– Throughout the art community, there are many different forms and techniques classed as art. In the recent attack on the Queensland Art Gallery (QAG), many of the public hastily judged the abstract art exhibition by stating ‘Abstract art is not really art’. Some of the reluctant public continue to say ‘Abstract painters are sloppy, reckless, renegades with no regard for rules for formalities.’ It is in my opinion that abstract art is can be classed as art because it incorporates the basic concepts and techniques of art….   [tags: Art Analysis ]


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1202 words | (3.4 pages)
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Public Art

– Public Art “Any drawn line that speaks about identity, dignity, and unity is art,” (Chaz Bojorquey) is a statement that I agree with. Art is perceived differently from all people based on their culture, religion, personal taste, and many other factors. I believe that as long as what has been created is meaningful to either the creator or even to somebody that is viewing it, it should be considered art. Art in the public is a very controversial subject that brings up the important question of, “Should public art be considered as real art,” personally I think that it should be….   [tags: Art]


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852 words | (2.4 pages)
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Land Art

– Land Art is created by combining art and nature in a complex way. Land art is also known as Earth Art or Earthworks. This art is designed directly in the physical landscapes with the help of natural substances and organic media like leaves, stones, soil, rocks, water, logs, etc. Mechanical earth moving equipment is also used by few artists. Artists show their reaction against industrialization and urbanization through the land art. Before the origin of modern land art, it has been already created by artists for last centuries….   [tags: Art]


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734 words | (2.1 pages)
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Environmental Art

– Environmental art is a genre of art that was established in the late 1960’s and it was created by things found in nature to make a piece of art. Some of the the environmental art would be so large in size, that it would be considered to be monumental. This kind of art can not be moved without destroying it, and the climate and weather can change it. There are many reasons why an artist would create an environmental work of art, such as : to address environmental issues affecting earth today, to show things that could be powered by nature or be interactive with natural phenomenon (like lighting or earthquakes), or to show how people can co-exist with nature, or maybe use it as a means to hel…   [tags: Art ]


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1118 words | (3.2 pages)
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African Art

– African Art African Art does not have specific date to which it evolved because most early African Art was carved in wood, which perished quickly. This is why most art dates from the 19th and early 20th century. Many 20th century artists admired and collected pieces of African Art. They enjoyed the bold color, expression, and form that produced a new beginning in art history. African Art was mostly dedicated to life affirming activities such as healing, pleasure, protection, and transformation….   [tags: Art]


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1028 words | (2.9 pages)
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Readymade Art

– In 1915 the concept of “readymade” art was introduced by Marcel Duchamp when he took an ordinary snow shovel and painted the title In advance of the broken arm. He had previously turned a wheel up-side down and attached it to a stool, creating a piece he called Bicycle wheel. This was also considered a “readymade.” A “readymade” by Duchamp is “an ordinary object elevated to the dignity of a work of art by the mere choice of an artist.” Duchamp produced many of these “readymades,” but it his readymade entitled Fountain that we will be discussing here….   [tags: Art ]


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1115 words | (3.2 pages)
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Analysis of the Asian Art Market

– During the art market booming on a global scale, due diligence of art market has become more and more important not only in developed countries,but also in developing countries, especially Asia area. When we collect our interviews from Asia, we can find some similarities between them. First of all, all of the interviewees from Asia do not know about the Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors (RICS).After our explanation, they are able to know about the valuation of RICS. This may be for two reasons….   [tags: chinese art, contemporary art, art market]


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1465 words | (4.2 pages)
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Impressionism In Art

– Impressionism: “a theory or practice in painting especially among French painters of about 1870 of depicting the natural appearances of objects by means of dabs or strokes of primary unmixed colors in order to simulate actual reflected light.” (“Impressionism.“) During the late 1800’s and early 1900’s a revolution in art began in France. Impressionism was a drastic change from the artwork from the Renaissance and the period of Romanticism in art. It was also the beginning of modern art. Famous Impressionistic artists include – a man dubbed the leader of Impressionism – Claude Monet, Edgar Degas, Paul Gauguin, Mary Cassatt, and Auguste Renoir….   [tags: Art History]


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1255 words | (3.6 pages)
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Postmodern Art

– Postmodern art decided to make revolutionary break with past and questioned previous theories known as “big narratives” of art, politics, economics and overall culture in order to create new theories. The big part of postmodern theory deals with the belief of preexistence of the art all around us. The artist is the one who can recognize these elements of art around as and synthesize them into the art work. This art work becomes object of interpretation which inevitably varies among different generations, social groups, national group, religious groups, and depends on some extent of the educational level of the observers and it is also different in the same individual in different times or en…   [tags: Art ]


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1781 words | (5.1 pages)
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“The true test of the greatness of a work of art is its ability to be understood by the masses.”

– “The true test of the greatness of a work of art is its ability to be understood by the masses.” The statement “The true test of the greatness of a work of art is its ability to be understood by the masses;” is highly problematic. Art in itself has an ambiguous definition that combines concepts of aesthetics and personal emotion. When one thinks of art, it becomes clear that the definition of art is too abstract. Art can be anything from cavepaintings to heiroglypics and pottery. Does this mean that art as it is defined is too broad….   [tags: Art]


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1086 words | (3.1 pages)
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Himalayan Art

– Art was largely used to express traditions in the Himalayan region. Once upon Many Times is an exhibition at Rubin Museum of Art representing a wide range of visual narratives and reproductions of temple murals, which can be regarded as exceptional examples of Himalayan art based upon Tibetan myths and legends. Furthermore, this paper will analyze the color arrangement, composition, proportion, hierarchy and motifs of the historical narrative Shantarakshita and scenes of his life and the Drowa Sangmo mural represented at the exhibition Once upon Many Times….   [tags: Art]


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1772 words | (5.1 pages)
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Art Analysis

– Though most works of art have some underlying, deeper meaning attached to them, our first impression of their significance comes through our initial visual interpretation. When we first view a painting or a statue or other piece of art, we notice first the visual details – its size, its medium, its color, and its condition, for example – before we begin to ponder its greater significance. Indeed, these visual clues are just as important as any other interpretation or meaning of a work, for they allow us to understand just what that deeper meaning is….   [tags: Art]


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965 words | (2.8 pages)
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Art History

– In the early 1700s, the monarchies failures at finance, national debt, involvement in multiple wars with little care given to veterans and rising unemployment inflamed the people. When coupled with the monarchies lifestyles of lavish spending on countless mistresses, flouting morals, excessive parties at court, and political favors, the popularity of royalty was quickly disintegrating. The irresponsibility of the aristocracy was no longer ignored, and a movement was beginning. This set the stage for political change….   [tags: Art ]


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502 words | (1.4 pages)
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Polishness of Polish Art.

– In polish art after year 2000 there is a lot more interest in history, especially topics related to World War II, Holocaust , Polish-German and Polis-Jewish relations as well as modern history like PRL times and libertanian impulse . Interest about history in Polish Art is not a new phenomenon. The early postwar art was related to war time trauma. But in art after year 2000 new occurance can be observed: interest in concrete historical facts is less important than questioning about history, about how it is constructed, what is is used for, how it is used, as well as how history is mixed with fiction and how it functions in our vision….   [tags: Art, Żmijewski’s Art]


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2053 words | (5.9 pages)
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The Value of Art

– The Value of Art Art can be misunderstood, misinterpreted, and misplaced in modern society. This is especially true in the life of Christians. Many Christians completely disregard art because they think it is a form of self-worship, a waste of time, or simply have no idea how to approach art. Some Christians will even avoid art museums, performances, and discussions because they do not want anything to do with art. Is something wrong with this negative approach to art. Should Christians participate in or avoid art in its various forms….   [tags: christianity, Uidhir, Bible, Graser, art]


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1891 words | (5.4 pages)
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Art Review

– The designer that I have decided to compare my work to is named David Bailey. He works for Mount Pleasant, which is an illustration/design firm operated out of Manchester, England. Bailey creates posters, album artwork, comics, and personal work (http://www.itsmountpleasant.com/). The poster was created for the Melvins, a punk band originating during the mid-1980s (http://www.themelvins.net/atb.shtml), and their European tour in 2008. He says that he made the letters look slimy because he thought the Melvins sounded like slime (Fingerprint)….   [tags: Art]


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687 words | (2 pages)
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Deceiving Art

– Can our eyes be deceived. Yes. They can, although there is nothing wrong with our eyes as such but it is our brain that determines what is and what is not existent which leads to our deception. Whatever our brain interprets, we see as an illusion. Our brain makes assumptions with the knowledge we have been educated with, so, what appears to be may not be as it seems. So we are left with the question, “is seeing believing?” (Horizon, 2010, episode: Is seeing believing?) Take Figure 1 for example, we see the tiles labelled A and B as different colours, but are they….   [tags: art]


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1724 words | (4.9 pages)
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The Meaning of a Work of Art

– By nature, human beings seek to understand and to be understood. We are curious about life. We want to express our personal interpretation of the world around us, and we want to know the interpretation of others to discover how it compares to our own. Art begins with the creator. An artist is driven to express his or her unique perspective be it a musical score, a painting, a literary work, or any number of other forms. There is satisfaction in the mere act of creating, but the work is fulfilled when it strikes a chord in the being of another….   [tags: Art Analysis]


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635 words | (1.8 pages)
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The Lost Art of the Unfortunate

– The Lost Art of the Unfortunate Introduction Art can be a vague subject. There are many different art movements, art forms, and art styles. What one finds pleasing, another may not. Some of the world’s population knows very little about art and the history of art, while others know all there is to know. But knowledge of any art work doesn’t mean one can’t interpret a piece in an intelligent way. Interpreting a piece of art comes of one’s thoughts and memories. One may find happiness in a dark, disturbing piece of art while another finds fear….   [tags: Art Movements, Styles, Techniques, Art]


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864 words | (2.5 pages)
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Comparing my Tattoo Art with the Work of Norman “Sailor Jerry” Collins

– The artist that I compare my work with the most is Norman “Sailor Jerry” Collins. For many years, I have studied his work and the style of the old school tattoo as I have always planned on becoming a tattoo artist myself. Now that I have finally begun my tattoo apprenticeship, I truly appreciate the similarities and differences that Collins and myself share. The first similarity that comes to mind is the general visual structure of our art. I tend to use a limited palette of colors in my tattoo art with emphasis on shading and shadows to create depth….   [tags: art]


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1003 words | (2.9 pages)
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Chapter Ten: The Experiment of Caricature, Art and Illusion by E.H Gombrich

– Chapter Ten: The Experiment of Caricature, Art and Illusion by E.H Gombrich In Chapter Ten the author expands upon how the conventions of the teachings of the academies transcribed into much more than that. This chapter tries to reveal the process or experimentation into the discoveries of expression that has helped transcend art through its fruition. There was now a movement that garnered further than that of Rembrandt, and John Constable, allowing budding artists to derive their perspective of expression away from nature….   [tags: Art]


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899 words | (2.6 pages)
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The Influence of Impressionism in Contemporary Art

– Throughout the known history the artists have been striving to capture the world around them in an attempt to document the contemporary events and their surroundings or present their own or their client’s vision or an interpretation of a concept that would illustrate, describe or help visualize an idea. The description of the resulting art is often classifies the work as belonging to a specific style thus illustrating a set of common traits between the artifacts belonging to the same period. Two of these classifications are the Realist and the Impressionist movements….   [tags: art, artists]


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1057 words | (3 pages)
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Know Your Critics

The 10 Essays That Changed Art Criticism Forever

By

Will Fenstermaker

The 10 Essays That Changed Art Criticism Forever

Dr. Cornel West

There has never been a time when art critics held more power than during the second half of the twentieth century. Following the Second World War, with the relocation of the world’s artistic epicenter from Paris to New York, a different kind of war was waged in the pages of magazines across the country. As part of the larger “culture wars” of the mid-century, art critics began to take on greater influence than they’d ever held before. For a time, two critics in particular—who began as friends, and remained in the same social circles for much of their lives—set the stakes of the debates surrounding the maturation of American art that would continue for decades. The ideas about art outlined by Clement Greenberg and Harold Rosenberg are still debated today, and the extent to which they were debated in the past has shaped entire movements of the arts. Below are ten works of criticism through which one can trace the mainstreaming of Clement Greenberg’s formalist theory, and how its dismantling led us into institutional critique and conceptual art today.

 

 

The American Action Painters

Harold Rosenberg

 One: Number 31Jackson Pollock, One: Number 31, 1950

 

Harold Rosenberg, a poet who came to art through his involvement with the Artist’s Union and the WPA, was introduced to Jean-Paul Sartre as the “first American existentialist.” Soon, Rosenberg became a contributor to Sartre’s publication in France, for which he first drafted his influential essay. However, when Sartre supported Soviet aggression against Korea, Rosenberg brought his essay to Elaine de Kooning , then the editor of ARTnews, who ran “The American Action Painters” in December, 1952.

RELATED: What Did Harold Rosenberg Do? An Introduction to the Champion of “Action Painting”

Rosenberg’s essay on the emerging school of American Painters omitted particular names—because they’d have been unfamiliar to its original French audience—but it was nonetheless extraordinarily influential for the burgeoning scene of post-WWII American artists. Jackson Pollock claimed to be the influence of “action painting,” despite Rosenberg’s rumored lack of respect for the artist because Pollock wasn’t particularly well-read. Influenced by Marxist theory and French existentialism, Rosenberg conceives of a painting as an “arena,” in which the artist acts upon, wrestles, or otherwise engages with the canvas, in what ultimately amounts to an expressive record of a struggle. “What was to go on the canvas,” Rosenberg wrote, “was not a picture but an event.”

 

Notable Quote

Weak mysticism, the “Christian Science” side of the new movement, tends … toward easy painting—never so many unearned masterpieces! Works of this sort lack the dialectical tension of a genuine act, associated with risk and will. When a tube of paint is squeezed by the Absolute, the result can only be a Success. The painter need keep himself on hand solely to collect the benefits of an endless series of strokes of luck. His gesture completes itself without arousing either an opposing movement within itself nor the desire in the artist to make the act more fully his own. Satisfied with wonders that remain safely inside the canvas, the artist accepts the permanence of the commonplace and decorates it with his own daily annihilation. The result is an apocalyptic wallpaper.

 

 

‘American-Type’ Painting

Clement Greenberg

 

Frank StellaFrank Stella, Untitled, 1967

 

Throughout the preceding decade, Clement Greenberg, also a former poet, had established a reputation as a leftist critic through his writings with The Partisan Review—a publication run by the John Reed Club, a New York City-centered organization affiliated with the American Communist Party—and his time as an art critic with The Nation. In 1955, The Partisan Review published Greenberg’s “‘American-Type’ Painting,” in which the critic defined the now-ubiquitous term “abstract expressionism.”

RELATED: What Did Clement Greenberg Do? A Primer on the Powerful AbEx Theorist’s Key Ideas

In contrast to Rosenberg’s conception of painting as a performative act, Greenberg’s theory, influenced by Clive Bell and T. S. Eliot, was essentially a formal one—in fact, it eventually evolved into what would be called “formalism.” Greenberg argued that the evolution of painting was one of historical determinacy—that ever since the Renaissance, pictures moved toward flatness, and the painted line moved away from representation. Henri Matisse and Pablo Picasso were two of the landmarks of this view. Pollock, who exhibited his drip paintings in 1951, freeing the line from figuration, was for Greenberg the pinnacle of American Modernism, the most important artist since Picasso. (Pollock’s paintings exhibited in 1954, with which he returned to semi-representational form, were regarded by Greenberg as a regression. This lead him to adopt Barnett Newman as his new poster-boy, despite the artist’s possessing vastly different ideas on the nature of painting. For one, Greenberg mostly ignored the Biblical titles of Newman’s paintings.)

Greenberg’s formalist theories were immensely influential over the subsequent decades. Artforum in particular grew into a locus for formalist discourse, which had the early effect of providing an aesthetic toolkit divorced from politic. Certain curators of the Museum of Modern Art, particularly William Rubin, Kirk Varnedoe, and to an extent Alfred Barr are credited for steering the museum in an essentially formalist direction. Some painters, such as Frank Stella , Helen Frankenthaler , and Kenneth Noland, had even been accused of illustrating Greenberg’s theories (and those of Michael Fried, a prominent Greenbergian disciple) in attempt to embody the theory, which was restrictive in its failure to account for narrative content, figuration, identity, politics, and more. In addition, Greenberg’s theories proved well-suited for a burgeoning art market, which found connoisseurship an easy sell. (As the writer Mary McCarthy said, “You can’t hang an event on your wall.”) In fact, the dominance of the term “abstract expressionism” over “action painting,” which seemed more applicable to Pollock and Willem de Kooning than any other members of the New York School, is emblematic of the influence of formalist discourse.

 

Notable Quote

The justification for the term, “abstract expressionist,” lies in the fact that most of the painters covered by it took their lead from German, Russian, or Jewish expressionism in breaking away from late Cubist abstract art. But they all started from French painting, for their fundamental sense of style from it, and still maintain some sort of continuity with it. Not least of all, they got from it their most vivid notion of an ambitious, major art, and of the general direction in which it had to go in their time.

 

 

ABC Art

Barbara Rose 

 Galvanized IronDonald Judd, Galvanized Iron 17 January, 1973

 

Like many critics in the 1950s and 60s, Barbara Rose had clearly staked her allegiance to one camp or the other. She was, firmly, a formalist, and along with Fried and Rosalind Krauss is largely credited with expanding the theory beyond abstract expressionist painting. By 1965, however, Rose recognized a limitation of the theory as outlined by Greenberg—that it was reductionist and only capable of account for a certain style of painting, and not much at all in other mediums.

RELATED:  The Intellectual Origins Of Minimalism

In “ABC Art,” published in Art in America where Rose was a contributing editor, Rose opens up formalism to encompass sculpture, which Greenberg was largely unable to account for. The simple idea that art moves toward flatness and abstraction leads, for Rose, into Minimalism, and “ABC Art” is often considered the first landmark essay on Minimalist art. By linking the Minimalist sculptures of artists like Donald Judd to the Russian supremacist paintings of Kasimir Malevich and readymades of Duchamp, she extends the determinist history that formalism relies on into sculpture and movements beyond abstract expressionism.

 

Notable Quote

I do not agree with critic Michael Fried’s view that Duchamp, at any rate, was a failed Cubist. Rather, the inevitability of a logical evolution toward a reductive art was obvious to them already. For Malevich, the poetic Slav, this realization forced a turning inward toward an inspirational mysticism, whereas for Duchamp, the rational Frenchman, it meant a fatigue so enervating that finally the wish to paint at all was killed. Both the yearnings of Malevich’s Slavic soul and the deductions of Duchamp’s rationalist mind led both men ultimately to reject and exclude from their work many of the most cherished premises of Western art in favor of an art stripped to its bare, irreducible minimum.

 

 

How I Spent My Summer Vacation

Philip Leider

 

Double NegativeMichael Heizer, Double Negative, 1969 

 

Despite the rhetorical tendency to suggest the social upheaval of the ’60s ended with the actual decade, 1970 remained a year of unrest. And Artforum was still the locus of formalist criticism, which was proving increasingly unable to account for art that contributed to larger cultural movements, like Civil Rights, women’s liberation, anti-war protests, and more. (Tellingly, The Partisan Review, which birthed formalism, had by then distanced itself from its communist associations and, as an editorial body, was supportive of American Interventionism in Vietnam. Greenberg was a vocal hawk.) Subtitled “Art and Politics in Nevada, Berkeley, San Francisco, and Utah,” the editor’s note to the September 1970 issue of Artforum, written by Philip Leider, ostensibly recounts a road trip undertaken with Richard Serra and Abbie Hoffman to see Michael Heizer’s Double Negative in the Nevada desert.

RELATED: A City of Art in the Desert: Behind Michael Heizer’s Monumental Visions for Nevada

However, the essay is also an account of an onsetting disillusion with formalism, which Leider found left him woefully unequipped to process the protests that had erupted surrounding an exhibition of prints by Paul Wunderlich at the Phoenix Gallery in Berkeley. Wunderlich’s depictions of nude women were shown concurrently to an exhibition of drawings sold to raise money for Vietnamese orphans. The juxtaposition of a canonical, patriarchal form of representation and liberal posturing, to which the protestors objected, showcased the limitations of a methodology that placed the aesthetic elements of a picture plane far above the actual world in which it existed. Less than a year later, Leider stepped down as editor-in-chief and Artforum began to lose its emphasis on late Modernism.

 

Notable Quote

I thought the women were probably with me—if they were, I was with them. I thought the women were picketing the show because it was reactionary art. To the women, [Piet] Mondrian must be a great revolutionary artist. Abstract art broke all of those chains thirty years ago! What is a Movement gallery showing dumb stuff like this for? But if it were just a matter of reactionary art, why would the women picket it? Why not? Women care as much about art as men do—maybe more. The question is, why weren’t the men right there with them?

 

 

Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?

Linda Nochlin

 Linda NochlinLinda Nochlin teaches an art history class at Vassar in 1965

 

While Artforum, in its early history, had established a reputation as a generator for formalist theory, ARTnews had followed a decidedly more Rosenberg-ian course, emphasizing art as a practice for investigating the world. The January 1971 issue of the magazine was dedicated to “Women’s Liberation, Woman Artists, and Art History” and included an iconoclastic essay by Linda Nochlin titled “Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?”

RELATED: An Introduction to Feminist Art

Nochlin notes that it’s tempting to answer the question “why have there been no great women artists?” by listing examples of those overlooked by critical and institutional organizations (a labor that Nochlin admits has great merit). However, she notes, “by attempting to answer it, they tacitly reinforce its negative implications,” namely that women are intrinsically less capable of achieving artistic merit than men. Instead, Nochlin’s essay functions as a critique of art institutions, beginning with European salons, which were structured in such a way as to deter women from rising to the highest echelons. Nochlin’s essay is considered the beginning of modern feminist art history and a textbook example of institutional critique.

 

Notable Quote

There are no women equivalents for Michelangelo or Rembrandt, Delacroix or Cézanne, Picasso or Matisse, or even in very recent times, for de Kooning or Warhol, any more than there are black American equivalents for the same. If there actually were large numbers of “hidden” great women artists, or if there really should be different standards for women’s art as opposed to men’s—and one can’t have it both ways—then what are feminists fighting for? If women have in fact achieved the same status as men in the arts, then the status quo is fine as it is.
But in actuality, as we all know, things as they are and as they have been, in the arts as in a hundred other areas, are stultifying, oppressive, and discouraging to all those, women among them, who did not have the good fortune to be born white, preferably middle class and above all, male. The fault lies not in our stars, our hormones, our menstrual cycles, or our empty internal spaces, but in our institutions and our education.

 

 

Doctor, Lawyer, Indian Chief

Thomas McEvilley

 Tribal ModernExhibition view of “Primitivism” in 20th Century Art: Affinity of the Tribal and the Modern

 

One of the many extrapolations of Nochlin’s essay is that contemporary museum institutions continue to reflect the gendered and racist biases of preceding centuries by reinforcing the supremacy of specific master artists. In a 1984 Artforum review, Thomas McEvilley, a classicist new to the world of contemporary art, made the case that the Museum of Modern Art in New York served as an exclusionary temple to certain high-minded Modernists—namely, Picasso, Matisse, and Pollock—who, in fact, took many of their innovations from native cultures.

RELATED: MoMA Curator Laura Hoptman on How to Tell a Good Painting From a “Bogus” Painting

In 1984, MoMA organized a blockbuster exhibition. Curated by William Rubin and Kirk Varnedoe, both of whom were avowed formalists, “‘Primitivism’ in 20th Century Art: Affinity of the Tribal and the Modern” collected works by European painters like Paul Gaugin and Picasso with cultural artifacts from Zaire, arctic communities, and elsewhere. McEvilley takes aim at the “the absolutist view of formalist Modernism” in which MoMA is rooted. He argues that the removal tribal artifacts from their contexts (for example, many were ritual items intended for ceremonies, not display) and placement of them, unattributed, near works by European artists, censors the cultural contributions of non-Western civilizations in deference to an idealized European genius.

 

Notable Quote

The fact that the primitive “looks like” the Modern is interpreted as validating the Modern by showing that its values are universal, while at the same time projecting it—and with it MoMA—into the future as a permanent canon. A counter view is possible: that primitivism on the contrary invalidates Modernism by showing it to be derivative and subject to external causation. At one level this show undertakes precisely to coopt that question by answering it before it has really been asked, and by burying it under a mass of information.

 

 

Please Wait By the Coatroom

John Yau

 The JungleWifredo Lam, The Jungle, 1943

 

Not content to let MoMA and the last vestiges of formalism off the hook yet, John Yau wrote in 1988 an essay on Wifredo Lam, a Cuban painter who lived and worked in Paris among Picasso, Matisse, Georges Braque, and others. Noting Lam’s many influences—his Afro-Cuban mother, Chinese father, and Yoruba godmother—Yau laments the placement of Lam’s The Jungle near the coatroom in the Museum of Modern Art, as opposed to within the Modernist galleries several floors above. The painting was accompanied by a brief entry written by former curator William Rubin, who, Yau argues, adopted Greenberg’s theories because they endowed him with “a connoisseur’s lens with which one can scan all art.”

RELATED: From Cuba With Love: Artist Bill Claps on the Island’s DIY Art Scene

Here, as with with McEvilley’s essay, Yau illustrates how formalism, as adapted by museum institutions, became a (perhaps unintentional) method for reinforcing the exclusionary framework that Nochlin argued excluded women and black artists for centuries.

 

Notable Quote

Rubin sees in Lam only what is in his own eyes: colorless or white artists. For Lam to have achieved the status of unique individual, he would have had to successfully adapt to the conditions of imprisonment (the aesthetic standards of a fixed tradition) Rubin and others both construct and watch over. To enter this prison, which takes the alluring form of museums, art history textbooks, galleries, and magazines, an individual must suppress his cultural differences and become a colorless ghost. The bind every hybrid American artist finds themselves in is this: should they try and deal with the constantly changing polymorphous conditions effecting identity, tradition, and reality? Or should they assimilate into the mainstream art world by focusing on approved-of aesthetic issues? Lam’s response to this bind sets an important precedent. Instead of assimilating, Lam infiltrates the syntactical rules of “the exploiters” with his own specific language. He becomes, as he says, “a Trojan horse.”

 

 

Black Culture and Postmodernism

Cornel West

 

Cornel WestCornel West

 

The opening up of cultural discourse did not mean that it immediately made room for voices of all dimensions. Cornel West notes as much in his 1989 essay “Black Culture and Postmodernism,” in which he argues that postmodernism, much like Modernism before it, remains primarily ahistorical, which makes it difficult for “oppressed peoples to exercise their opposition to hierarchies of power.” West’s position is that the proliferation of theory and criticism that accompanied the rise of postmodernism provided mechanisms by which black culture could “be conversant with and, to a degree, participants in the debate.” Without their voices, postmodernism would remain yet another exclusionary movements.

RELATED: Kerry James Marshall on Painting Blackness as a Noun Vs. Verb

 

Notable Quote

As the consumption cycle of advanced multinational corporate capitalism was sped up in order to sustain the production of luxury goods, cultural production became more and more mass-commodity production. The stress here is not simply on the new and fashionable but also on the exotic and primitive. Black cultural products have historically served as a major source for European and Euro-American exotic interests—interests that issue from a healthy critique of the mechanistic, puritanical, utilitarian, and productivity aspects of modern life.

 

 

Minimalism and the Rhetoric of Power

Anna C. Chave

 Tilted ArcRichard Serra, Tilted Arc, 1981

 

In recent years, formalist analysis has been deployed as a single tool within a more varied approach to art. Its methodology—that of analyzing a picture as an isolated phenomena—remains prevalent, and has its uses. Yet, many of the works and movements that rose to prominence under formalist critics and curators, in no small part because of their institutional acceptance, have since become part of the rearguard rather than the vanguard.

In a 1990 essay for Arts Magazine, Anna Chave analyzes how Minimalist sculpture possesses a “domineering, sometimes brutal rhetoric” that was aligned with “both the American military in Vietnam, and the police at home in the streets and on university campuses across the country.” In particular, Chave is concerned with the way Minimalist sculptures define themselves through a process of negation. Of particular relevance to Chave’s argument are the massive steel sculptures by Minimalist artist Richard Serra. 

Tilted Arc was installed in Federal Plaza in lower Manhattan in 1981. Chave describes the work as a “mammoth, perilously tilted steel arc [that] formed a divisive barrier too tall to see over, and a protracted trip to walk around.” She writes, “it is more often the case with Serra that his work doesn’t simply exemplify aggression or domination, but acts it out.” Tilted Arc was so controversial upon its erecting that the General Services Administration, which commissioned the work, held hearings in response to petitions demanding the work be removed. Worth quoting at length, Chave writes:

A predictable defense of Serra’s work was mounted by critics, curators, dealers, collectors, and some fellow artists…. The principle arguments mustered on Serra’s behalf were old ones concerning the nature and function of the avant-garde…. What Rubin and Serra’s other supporters declined to ask is whether the sculptor really is, in the most meaningful sense of the term, an avant-garde artist. Being avant-garde implies being ahead of, outside, or against the dominant culture; proffering a vision that implicitly stands (at least when it is conceived) as a critique of entrenched forms and structures…. But Serra’s work is securely embedded within the system: when the brouhaha over Arc was at its height, he was enjoying a retrospective at the Museum of Modern Art…. [The defense’s] arguments locate Serra not with the vanguard but with the standing army or “status quo.” … More thoughtful, sensible, and eloquent testimony at the hearing came instead from some of the uncouth:

My name is Danny Katz and I work in this building as a clerk. My friend Vito told me this morning that I am a philistine. Despite that I am getting up to speak…. I don’t think this issue should be elevated into a dispute between the forces of ignorance and art, or art versus government. I really blame government less because it has long ago outgrown its human dimension. But from the artists I expected a lot more. I didn’t expect to hear them rely on the tired and dangerous reasoning that the government has made a deal, so let the rabble live with the steel because it’s a deal. That kind of mentality leads to wars. We had a deal with Vietnam. I didn’t expect to hear the arrogant position that art justifies interference with the simple joys of human activity in a plaza. It’s not a great plaza by international standards, but it is a small refuge and place of revival for people who ride to work in steel containers, work in sealed rooms, and breathe recirculated air all day. Is the purpose of art in public places to seal off a route of escape, to stress the absence of joy and hope? I can’t believe this was the artistic intention, yet to my sadness this for me has become the dominant effect of the work, and it’s all the fault of its position and location. I can accept anything in art, but I can’t accept physical assault and complete destruction of pathetic human activity. No work of art created with a contempt for ordinary humanity and without respect for the common element of human experience can be great. It will always lack dimension.

The terms Katz associated with Serra’s project include arrogance and contempt, assault, and destruction; he saw the Minimalist idiom, in other words, as continuous with the master discourse of our imperious and violent technocracy.

 

 

The End of Art

Arthur Danto

 

BrilloAndy Warhol carries a Brillo box in his Factory

 

Like Greenberg, Arthur Danto was an art critic for The Nation. However, Danto was overtly critical of Greenberg’s ideology and the influence he wielded over Modern and contemporary art. Nor was he a follower of Harold Rosenberg, though they shared influences, among them the phenomenologist Maurice Merleau-Ponty. Danto’s chief contribution to contemporary art was his advancing of Pop Artists, particularly Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein .

In “The End of Art” Danto argues that society at large determines and accepts art, which no longer progresses linearly, categorized by movements. Instead, viewers each possess a theory or two, which they use to interpret works, and art institutions are largely tasked with developing, testing, and modifying various interpretive methods. In this way, art differs little from philosophy. After decades of infighting regarding the proper way to interpret works of art, Danto essentially sanctioned each approach and the institutions that gave rise to them. He came to call this “pluralism.”

RELATED: What Was the Pictures Generation?

Similarly, in “Painting, Politics, and Post-Historical Art,” Danto makes the case for an armistice between formalism and the various theories that arose in opposition, noting that postmodern critics like Douglas Crimp in the 1980s, who positioned themselves against formalism, nonetheless adopted the same constrictive air, minus the revolutionary beginnings.

 

Notable Quote

Modernist critical practice was out of phase with what was happening in the art world itself in the late 60s and through the 1970s. It remained the basis for most critical practice, especially on the part of the curatoriat, and the art-history professoriat as well, to the degree that it descended to criticism. It became the language of the museum panel, the catalog essay, the article in the art periodical. It was a daunting paradigm, and it was the counterpart in discourse to the “broadening of taste” which reduced art of all cultures and times to its formalist skeleton, and thus, as I phrased it, transformed every museum into a Museum of Modern Art, whatever that museum’s contents. It was the stable of the docent’s gallery talk and the art appreciation course—and it was replaced, not totally but massively, by the postmodernist discourse that was imported from Paris in the late 70s, in the texts of Michel Foucault, Jacques Derrida, Jean Baudrillard, Jean-François Lyotard, and Jacques Lacan, and of the French feminists Hélène Cixous and Luce Irigaray. That is the discourse [Douglas] Crimp internalizes, and it came to be lingua artspeak everywhere. Like modernist discourse, it applied to everything, so that there was room for deconstructive and “archeological” discussion of art of every period.

 

 

Editor’s Note: This list was drawn in part from a 2014 seminar taught by Debra Bricker Balken in the MFA program in Art Writing at the School of Visual Arts titled Critical Strategies: Late Modernism/Postmodernism. Additional sources can be found here , here , here (paywall), and here . Also relevant are reviews of the 2008 exhibition at the Jewish Museum, “Action/Abstraction: Pollock, de Kooning, and American Art, 1940–1976,” notably those by Roberta Smith ,  Peter Schjeldahl , and  Martha Schwendener .

 

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When placing a bid, enter the maximum amount you are willing to pay for the work. Entering your “Maximum Bid” does not necessarily mean you will pay that price, you may pay less. The Auction system will Proxy Bid on your behalf up to the amount of your Maximum Bid. Once you enter your Maximum Bid, your current bid displayed will be in the amount of the “Next Minimum Bid.” As the auction proceeds, Artspace will compare your bid to those of other bidders. When you are outbid, the system automatically bids on your behalf according to the bidding increments established for that auction up to (but never exceeding) your maximum bid. We increase your bid by increments only as much as necessary to maintain your position as highest bidder. Your maximum bid is kept confidential until it is exceeded by another bidder. If your maximum bid is outbid, you will be notified via email so that you can place another bid.

If the auction is a benefit auction or an auction with a physical event (which will be noted on the auction page), all online bids will be transferred to that event and Artspace or the organization running the event will continue to monitor your bids in person and continue Proxy Bidding on your behalf up to your maximum bid. Winning bidders will be notified within 48 hours after the close of the auction. If you are not contacted by Artspace, you were not the highest bidder.

Closing the Auction

Upon the close of each auction Artspace shall separately confirm the highest bid to the seller and notify the buyer submitting the highest bid that the bid was successful and the amount of the buyer’s premium due to Artspace to be charged to buyer’s credit card. Artspace shall thereupon charge buyer’s credit card in the amount of the buyer’s premium.

Upon receipt of the buyer’s premium Artspace shall email both the successful buyer and seller and shall provide each with the name, address, telephone number and email address of the other; buyer and seller are thereafter solely responsible for arranging for the transmission of payment of the purchase price within 24 hours of the transmission of the Artspace email and for prompt shipment of the goods after receipt of good funds. If for any reason after Artspace’s initial confirmation of the successful bid the buyer cancels the transaction or fails to make payment to the seller, the buyer shall remain liable to Artspace for the full buyer’s premium and Artspace reserves the right to retain such buyer’s premium in addition to any other remedies it has at law or equity.

Any dispute with respect to the auction of any item shall be resolved between buyer and seller and without the participation of Artspace. Seller is solely responsible for collecting payment from the buyer. Artspace does not guaranty and is not responsible in any way for the performance of buyers or sellers participating in the auction.

Responsibilities of Auction Buyers and Sellers

Goods offered on Artspace Auctions must be tangible goods that meet the requirements of the Site. Sellers shall not offer any goods for sale or consummate any transaction initiated on Artspace Auctions that violates or could cause Artspace to violate any applicable law, statute, ordinance or regulation. Artspace shall have sole discretion as to whether a specific item meets the requirements of the Site, which determination is final.

Sellers offering goods shall post a description of the goods offered and may set a minimum reserve price, a minimum overbid amount and the termination of the auction of the goods. Sellers agree to accept the highest bid above their set reserve price and to deliver the offered goods to the buyer submitting such highest bid. Any goods offered using a seller’s registration log in information shall be deemed by Artspace and any bidding buyer as being offered or authorized by that seller. Sellers are solely responsible for the description, condition, authenticity, and quality of the goods offered. Sellers represent that they are in compliance with all applicable laws, including without limitation those regarding the transmission of technical data exported from the United States or the country in which the seller resides as well as the restrictions on import or export of goods from the seller’s country to the buyer’s country.

By posting goods on the Artspace Auctions each seller represents and warrants that he/she holds free and marketable title to the goods offered and that the sale to any buyer will be free and clear of any and all liens or encumbrances. Sellers agree that Artspace Auctions will publish images and information in English relating to the goods offered by sellers. Sellers are solely responsible for descriptions of goods and all other content provided to Artspace by seller. Each seller agrees that Artspace may reformat content submitted by sellers in order to best serve the needs and formatting of the Artspace Auctions. Sellers grant Artspace a perpetual, irrevocable, royalty-free license to use the listing information in other areas of the site in our sole discretion.

Sellers are responsible for shipment of goods to successful bidding buyers upon receipt of the purchase price. Sellers must make shipment promptly on receipt of good funds from buyers. Sellers are responsible for collecting any and all applicable taxes from the successful buyer and for remitting such taxes to the applicable taxing authority.

Buyers are responsible for determining the value, condition and authenticity of the goods. Buyers participating in the Artspace Auctions represent and warrant by placing any bid that they are ready, willing and able to pay the purchase price bid, all applicable taxes and the buyer’s premium all within 24 hours of the close of the auction if they are the successful bidder. Any bids submitted using a buyer’s registration log in information shall be deemed made or authorized by that buyer. Each buyer placing any bid represents and warrants that such bids are not the product of any collusive or other anti-competitive agreement and are otherwise consistent with federal and state laws. Each buyer is responsible for payment of New York State and local sales tax, any applicable use tax, any federal luxury tax or any other taxes assessed on the purchase of the goods. The buyer is solely responsible for identifying and obtaining any necessary export, import, or other permit for the delivery of the goods and for determining whether the goods are subject to any export or import embargoes.

Artspace not Responsible for Auction Submissions; No Representations or Warranties

Sellers and buyers agree that Artspace is not responsible for and does not make any representations or warranties (express or implied) as to the goods offered, including without limitation as to merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, the accuracy of the description of the goods, the physical condition, size, quality, rarity, importance, medium, provenance, whether the goods are subject to export or import restrictions or embargoes, shipment or delivery, packing or handling, the ability of the buyer to pay, the ability of the seller to collect the purchase price, or any other representation or warranty of any kind or nature. Artspace is not responsible for any errors or failures to execute bids placed online, including, without limitation, errors or failures caused by (1) loss of connection to the internet or to the online bidding software by any party, (2) a breakdown or failure of the online bidding software, or (3) a breakdown or failure of any seller’s or buyer’s internet connection or computer or (4) any errors or omissions in connection with the bidding process.

Open Positions on Careers Pages

We may list open employment positions on this web site. These postings are for informational purposes only and are subject to change without notice. You should not construe any information on this Site or made available through Site as an offer for employment. Nor should you construe anything on this web site as a promotion or solicitation for employment not authorized by the laws and regulations of your locale.

Privacy Policy; User Information

In the course of your use of the Site, you may be asked to provide certain information to us. Our use of any information you provide via the Site shall be governed by our Privacy Policy available at here artspace.com/privacy. We urge you to read our Privacy Policy. You acknowledge and agree that you are solely responsible for the accuracy and content of such information.

International Use

We control and operate the Site from our offices in the United States of America, and all information is processed within the United States. We do not represent that materials on the Site are appropriate or available for use in other locations. Persons who choose to access the Site from other locations do so on their own initiative, and are responsible for compliance with local laws, if and to the extent local laws are applicable.

You agree to comply with all applicable laws, rules and regulations in connection with your use of the Site. Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, you agree to comply with all applicable laws regarding the transmission of technical data exported from the United States or the country in which you reside.

Proprietary Rights

As between you and Artspace (or other company whose marks appear on the Site), Artspace (or the respective company) is the owner and/or authorized user of any trademark, registered trademark and/or service mark appearing on the Site, and is the copyright owner or licensee of the Content and/or information on the Site, unless otherwise indicated.

Except as otherwise provided herein, use of the Site does not grant you a license to any Content, features or materials you may access on the Site and you may not modify, rent, lease, loan, sell, distribute or create derivative works of such Content, features or materials, in whole or in part. Any commercial use of the Site is strictly prohibited, except as allowed herein or otherwise approved by us. You may not download or save a copy of any of the Content or screens for any purpose except as otherwise provided by Artspace. If you make use of the Site, other that as provided herein, in doing so you may violate copyright and other laws of the United States, other countries, as well as applicable state laws and may be subject to liability for such unauthorized use. We do not grant any license or other authorization to any user of our trademarks, registered trademarks, service marks, other copyrightable material or any other intellectual property by including them on the Site.

The information on the Site including, without limitation, all site design, text, graphics, interfaces, and the selection and arrangements is protected by law including copyright law.

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Links from and to the Site

You may be able to link to third party websites (“Linked Sites”) from the Site. Linked Sites are not, however, reviewed, controlled or examined by us in any way and we are not responsible for the content, availability, advertising, products, information or use of user information or other materials of any such Linked Sites, or any additional links contained therein. These links do not imply our endorsement of or association with the Linked Sites. It is your sole responsibility to comply with the appropriate terms of service of the Linked Sites as well as with any other obligation under copyright, secrecy, defamation, decency, privacy, security and export laws related to the use of such Linked Sites and any content contained thereon. In no event shall we be liable, directly or indirectly, to anyone for any loss or damage arising from or occasioned by the creation or use of the Linked Sites or the information or material accessed through these Linked Sites. You should direct any concerns to that site’s administrator or Webmaster. We reserve the exclusive right, at its sole discretion, to add, change, decline or remove, without notice, any feature or link to any of the Linked Sites from the Site and/or introduce different features or links to different users.

Permission must be granted by us for any type of link to the Site. To seek our permission, you may write to us at the address below. We reserve the right, however, to deny any request or rescind any permission granted by us to link through such other type of link, and to require termination of any such link to the Site, at our discretion at any time.

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THE SITE, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, ALL CONTENT, FUNCTION, MATERIALS AND SERVICES IS PROVIDED “AS IS,” WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, ANY WARRANTY FOR INFORMATION, DATA, DATA PROCESSING SERVICES OR UNINTERRUPTED ACCESS, ANY WARRANTIES CONCERNING THE AVAILABILITY, ACCURACY, COMPLETENESS, USEFULNESS, OR CONTENT OF INFORMATION, AND ANY WARRANTIES OF TITLE, NON-INFRINGEMENT, MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. COMPANY DOES NOT WARRANT THAT THE SITE OR THE FUNCTION, CONTENT OR SERVICES MADE AVAILABLE THEREBY WILL BE TIMELY, SECURE, UNINTERRUPTED OR ERROR FREE, OR THAT DEFECTS WILL BE CORRECTED. Artspace MAKES NO WARRANTY THAT THE SITE WILL MEET USERS’ EXPECTATIONS OR REQUIREMENTS. NO ADVICE, RESULTS OR INFORMATION, OR MATERIALS WHETHER ORAL OR WRITTEN, OBTAINED BY YOU THROUGH THE SITE SHALL CREATE ANY WARRANTY NOT EXPRESSLY MADE HEREIN. IF YOU ARE DISSATISFIED WITH THE SITE, YOUR SOLE REMEDY IS TO DISCONTINUE USING THE SITE.

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Artspace DOES NOT ENDORSE, WARRANT OR GUARANTEE ANY PRODUCTS OR SERVICES OFFERED OR PROVIDED BY OR ON BEHALF OF THIRD PARTIES ON OR THROUGH THE SITE. Artspace IS NOT A PARTY TO, AND DOES NOT MONITOR, ANY TRANSACTION BETWEEN USERS AND THIRD PARTIES WITHOUT THE DIRECT INVOLVEMENT OF COMPANY.

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Applicable Law/Jurisdiction

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Any inquiries concerning these Terms should be directed to us at the address below.

Risk of Loss

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Purchasing

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Notices

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Contests

In the event of a dispute regarding the identity of the person submitting the entry, the entry will be deemed to be submitted by the person in whose name the e-mail account is registered. All drawings will be conducted under the supervision of Sponsor. The decisions of the Sponsors are final and binding in all matters relating to this contest. Sponsors reserve the right, at its sole discretion, to disqualify any individual it finds, in its sole discretion, to be tampering with the entry process or the operation of the Contest or the Website located at www.artspace.com; to be in violation of the Terms of Service of the Website; to be acting in violation of these Official Rules; to be acting in a disruptive manner, or with intent to annoy, abuse, threaten or harass any other person. If for any reason this Contest is not capable of running as planned due to infection by computer virus, bugs, tampering, unauthorized intervention, fraud, technical failures, or any other causes which, in the sole opinion of Sponsor, corrupt or affect the administration, security, fairness, integrity, or proper conduct of this Contests, Sponsor reserve the right to cancel, terminate, modify or suspend the Contest.

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Disputes

As a condition of participating in Contests, you agree that any and all disputes which cannot be resolved between the parties, claims and causes of action arising out of or connected with this Contest, or any prizes awarded, or the determination of the winner shall be resolved individually, without resort to any form of class action exclusively by arbitration pursuant to the commercial arbitration rules of the American Arbitration Association, then effective. Further, in any such dispute, under no circumstances will you be permitted to obtain awards for, and you hereby waive all rights to claim punitive, incidental or consequential damages, or any other damages, including attorneys’ fees, other than your actual out-of-pocket expenses (i.e., costs associated with entering this Contest), and you further waive all rights to have damages multiplied or increased. All issues and questions concerning the construction, validity, interpretation and enforceability of these Official Rules, or your rights and obligations or Sponsor’s rights and obligations in connection with this Contest, shall be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the laws of the State of New York, U.S.A., without giving effect to the conflict of laws rules thereof, and all proceedings shall take place in that State in the City and County of New York.

As a condition of participating in Contests, you agree that any and all disputes which cannot be resolved between the parties, claims and causes of action arising out of or connected with this Contest, or any prizes awarded, or the determination of the winner shall be resolved individually, without resort to any form of class action exclusively by arbitration pursuant to the commercial arbitration rules of the American Arbitration Association, then effective. Further, in any such dispute, under no circumstances will you be permitted to obtain awards for, and you hereby waive all rights to claim punitive, incidental or consequential damages, or any other damages, including attorneys’ fees, other than your actual out-of-pocket expenses (i.e., costs associated with entering this Contest), and you further waive all rights to have damages multiplied or increased. All issues and questions concerning the construction, validity, interpretation and enforceability of these Official Rules, or your rights and obligations or Sponsor’s rights and obligations in connection with this Contest, shall be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the laws of the State of New York, U.S.A., without giving effect to the conflict of laws rules thereof, and all proceedings shall take place in that State in the City and County of New York.

As a condition of participating in Contests, you agree that any and all disputes which cannot be resolved between the parties, claims and causes of action arising out of or connected with this Contest, or any prizes awarded, or the determination of the winner shall be resolved individually, without resort to any form of class action exclusively by arbitration pursuant to the commercial arbitration rules of the American Arbitration Association, then effective. Further, in any such dispute, under no circumstances will you be permitted to obtain awards for, and you hereby waive all rights to claim punitive, incidental or consequential damages, or any other damages, including attorneys’ fees, other than your actual out-of-pocket expenses (i.e., costs associated with entering this Contest), and you further waive all rights to have damages multiplied or increased. All issues and questions concerning the construction, validity, interpretation and enforceability of these Official Rules, or your rights and obligations or Sponsor’s rights and obligations in connection with this Contest, shall be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the laws of the State of New York, U.S.A., without giving effect to the conflict of laws rules thereof, and all proceedings shall take place in that State in the City and County of New York.
In the event of a dispute as to the identity of the winner based on an e-mail address, the winning entry will be declared made by the authorized account holder of the e-mail address submitted at time of entry. “Authorized account holder is defined as the natural person who is assigned to an e-mail address by an Internet access provider, on-line service provider or other organization (e.g., business, educational, institution, etc.) that is responsible for assigning e-mail addresses for the domain associated with the submitted e-mail address

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Damien Hirst,Pardon,2012
James Welling,H1,2006
Josh Smith,LARGE IMAGE J.S. (Untitled, 2006),2012
Sol LeWitt,Two Centimeter Wavy Bands In Colors,1996
Coke Wisdom O’Neal,The Gospel of Wealth,2013
Alex Katz,Coleman Pond II,2007

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The 10 Essays That Changed Art Criticism Forever

By

Will Fenstermaker

The 10 Essays That Changed Art Criticism Forever

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Damien Hirst,Pardon,2012
James Welling,H1,2006
Josh Smith,LARGE IMAGE J.S. (Untitled, 2006),2012
Sol LeWitt,Two Centimeter Wavy Bands In Colors,1996
Coke Wisdom O’Neal,The Gospel of Wealth,2013
Alex Katz,Coleman Pond II,2007

Damien Hirst,Pardon,2012
James Welling,H1,2006
Josh Smith,LARGE IMAGE J.S. (Untitled, 2006),2012
Sol LeWitt,Two Centimeter Wavy Bands In Colors,1996
Coke Wisdom O’Neal,The Gospel of Wealth,2013
Alex Katz,Coleman Pond II,2007

Damien Hirst,Pardon,2012
James Welling,H1,2006
Josh Smith,LARGE IMAGE J.S. (Untitled, 2006),2012
Sol LeWitt,Two Centimeter Wavy Bands In Colors,1996
Coke Wisdom O’Neal,The Gospel of Wealth,2013
Alex Katz,Coleman Pond II,2007

Damien Hirst,Pardon,2012
James Welling,H1,2006
Josh Smith,LARGE IMAGE J.S. (Untitled, 2006),2012
Sol LeWitt,Two Centimeter Wavy Bands In Colors,1996
Coke Wisdom O’Neal,The Gospel of Wealth,2013
Alex Katz,Coleman Pond II,2007

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Damien Hirst,Pardon,2012
James Welling,H1,2006
Josh Smith,LARGE IMAGE J.S. (Untitled, 2006),2012
Sol LeWitt,Two Centimeter Wavy Bands In Colors,1996
Coke Wisdom O’Neal,The Gospel of Wealth,2013
Alex Katz,Coleman Pond II,2007

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Bidding increments increase at the following intervals:

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Every bid submitted is treated as a maximum bid. You should always bid the maximum you are willing to spend for a work, though this does not necessarily mean you will pay that price. As the auction unfolds, we will increase your bid by increments to ensure you remain the highest bidder. If the winning amount is less than your maximum bid, you will pay the current increment. If your maximum bid no longer exceeds the current bid, you will receive an outbid notification email, and have the option to bid again.

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Winning bidders will be contacted within 48 hours to arrange shipping and to provide final price including commission, shipping, and taxes and duties when applicable. Promotion codes cannot be applied to auction works.

* Price listed does not include buyer’s premium (if applicable), sales tax, shipping, or handling fees.

Damien Hirst,Pardon,2012
James Welling,H1,2006
Josh Smith,LARGE IMAGE J.S. (Untitled, 2006),2012
Sol LeWitt,Two Centimeter Wavy Bands In Colors,1996
Coke Wisdom O’Neal,The Gospel of Wealth,2013
Alex Katz,Coleman Pond II,2007

Damien Hirst,Pardon,2012
James Welling,H1,2006
Josh Smith,LARGE IMAGE J.S. (Untitled, 2006),2012
Sol LeWitt,Two Centimeter Wavy Bands In Colors,1996
Coke Wisdom O’Neal,The Gospel of Wealth,2013
Alex Katz,Coleman Pond II,2007

FRAME DETAILS & ELEMENTS

Frame

All our frames are manufactured in the USA, using eco-friendly & sustainably sourced engineered hardwood for durability and a uniform finish that is free of defects. Frames are available in Black or White Satin and Honey Pecan.


  • White Satin

  • Honey Pecan

  • Black Satin

Mat

All prints are hinged to a conservation quality, acid-free and lignin-free Alpha Cellulose matboard, using an acid-free linen tape. The mat’s surface paper is fade and bleed resistant and is attached to a conservation quality foam-core mounting board that will keep the work safe from deterioration over time. Artworks with a deckled or decorative edges will be floated on the matboard, with acrylic spacers to separate the art from the glazing. All mounting is fully reversible, without any potential damage to the art.

Acrylic Glazing

All of our frames come with picture quality .090 mm plexiglass, which blocks 66% of UV to prevent color fading from exposure to light, keeping your art protected for years to come. It is now considered the industry standard for artists, museums and galleries throughout the world.

Dimensions

For images up to 30″ x 40″

  • 1 1/4” wide, 3/4” deep, with a 2 1/2” wide mat.
  • We generally leave 1/4” – 1/2” of paper showing around the image, to accommodate signatures and for visual appeal.

For sheet sizes larger than 30” x 40”

  • Please contact an Artspace advisor for a custom quote.

If you have any questions about framing or care, please email  [email protected] .

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Damien Hirst,Pardon,2012
James Welling,H1,2006
Josh Smith,LARGE IMAGE J.S. (Untitled, 2006),2012
Sol LeWitt,Two Centimeter Wavy Bands In Colors,1996
Coke Wisdom O’Neal,The Gospel of Wealth,2013
Alex Katz,Coleman Pond II,2007